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Understanding Pharmacology Essentials for Medication Safety 2nd Edition Workman Test Bank
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Chapter 03: Mathematics Review and Introduction to Dosage Calculation
Workman & LaCharity: Understanding Pharmacology: Essentials for Medication
Safety, 2nd Edition
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. What is the most important consideration when using a calculator for drug dosages?
a. Always check the answers with a pharmacist.
b. Ensure the numbers are entered in the correct order.
c. Work the problem by hand and then check all work using the computer.
d. Calculate the answer with the computer and then check the answer by working the
problem by hand.
ANS: B
Remember that math problems are punched into the calculator just like they are written or just
like you would say them out loud. For example, 24 ๏ด 12 is punched in as 2, 4, ๏ด, 1, 2 =
answer. If you punch in either of the numbers backward (e.g., 4, 2, ๏ด 1, 2 or 2, 4, ๏ด, 2, 1) the
answer will be wrong.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering
REF: p. 46
2. What is the best definition of a fraction?
a. Part of a whole number obtained by dividing one number by a larger number.
b. The answer obtained when one number divided another number is always an even
number.
c. The smallest unit or part of a number that can be obtained by dividing one number
by itself.
d. The dividing point between whole numbers and parts of numbers in a system based
on units of ten.
ANS: A
A fraction is always a part of a whole number. A proper fraction is always less than a single
whole number.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering
3. In the equation 2X =
a.
b.
c.
d.
REF: p. 46
, which element is the numerator?
2
4
6
X
ANS: B
The numerator is always the top number in a fraction that will be divided by the bottom
number (denominator).
DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering
REF: p. 46
4. What does the โNโ indicate in the PINCH high alert drugs?
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a.
b.
c.
d.
Narcotics
Niacin
Naphthalene
Neurotransmitter
ANS: A
The PINCH term for high alert drugs stands for potassium, insulin, narcotics (also known as
opioids), cancer chemotherapy drugs, and heparin or any other drug that strongly affects blood
clotting. Niacin is a vitamin. Naphthalene is a poisonous organic chemical that is never used
as a drug. A neurotransmitter is a class of biologic chemicals the body makes and uses to
control nerve impulses.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering
REF: p. 46
5. Which term is used to describe the bottom number of a fraction?
a. Denominator
b. Subtractor
c. Numerator
d. Dividend
ANS: A
The top of a fraction is the numerator, the bottom is the denominator.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering
REF: p. 46
6. Which statement about an improper fraction is true?
a. It is always greater than 1.
b. It has no lowest common denominator.
c. It cannot be multiplied or divided by another fraction.
d. It can only be multiplied or divided by a whole number.
ANS: A
An improper fraction is one in which the numerator is greater than the denominator.
Therefore, the value of an improper fraction is always greater than 1.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering
REF: p. 47
7. The term โpercentโ is related to which number?
a. 5
b. 10
c. 50
d. 100
ANS: D
The expression of how a number is related to 100; โliterally for each hundred.โ
DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering
REF: p. 53
8. What is the first step in dividing two fractions?
a. Ensuring both numbers are proper fractions
b. Converting the numerators into their lowest common number
c. Converting the denominators into their lowest common number
d. Inverting the second fraction and multiplying the numerators separately from the
denominators
ANS: D
Dividing fractions is almost exactly the same as multiplying fractions. The only difference is
that the second fraction is always inverted first (changing the positions of the numerator and
the denominator).
DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering
REF: pp. 49-50
9. Which statement about the relationship between fractions and decimals is true?
a. A fraction can be expressed as a decimal but a decimal cannot be expressed as a
fraction.
b. A decimal can be expressed as a fraction but a fraction cannot be expressed as a
decimal.
c. All fractions can be expressed as decimals and all decimals can be expressed as
fractions.
d. Fractions can only be expressed as decimals if they are proper fractions.
ANS: C
Decimals and fractions are related because they are both parts of a whole. All fractions,
whether they are proper or improper, can be correctly expressed as a corresponding decimal.
All decimals can be correctly expressed as fractions.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering
REF: p. 50
10. Which dosage expression should be avoided?
a. 0.25 mg
b. 2.5 mg
c. 2.500 mg
d. 25 mg
ANS: C
The zeros after a decimal point serve no purpose and are known as โtrailing zeros.โ When
they are written as part of a dosage, they can contribute to confusion about the exact dose.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering
REF: p. 50
11. What specific safety technique is always used when calculating an insulin dose?
a. Use a calculator and never calculate the dose by hand.
b. Calculate the dose by hand and never use a calculator.
c. Have another health care professional check the dose.
d. Wear sterile gloves to administer the calculated dose.
ANS: C
Insulin is a high alert (PINCH) drug that can cause serious damage if the wrong dose is
administered. Always have another health care professional double check the dose you
calculate by independently recalculating the dose and comparing it to the dose you calculated.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding
REF: p. 46
12. Which fraction represents the whole number 10?
a.
b.
c.
d.
ANS: D
All whole numbers can be converted to fractions by placing the whole number as the
numerator with the denominator of 1. When the denominator is anything other than 1, the
result is a number that is only a part of 10. So,
= 0,
= 1,
than 10, in only 1% of 10), and only
= the whole number 10.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding
REF: p. 47
= 1 tenth of 1 (much less
13. Which number is expressed as a proper fraction?
a.
b.
c.
d.
ANS: C
A proper fraction is one that is always less than a whole number, with the numerator always
being smaller than the denominator.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding
REF: p. 47
14. Which fraction accurately represents the mixed number 6 5/8?
a.
b.
c.
d.
ANS: D
The number 6 is a whole number that reflects 6 ๏ด
to make the improper fraction of
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding
.
REF: p. 47
or
. This number (
) is added to
15. Which fraction is expressed as its lowest common denominator?
a.
b.
c.
d.
ANS: B
The fraction
cannot be further reduced. The number
can be reduced to
; and the number
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding
can be reduced to
can be reduced to
, the number
.
REF: p. 47
16. What is the lowest common denominator for the fraction series of 10/15, 9/27, 10/30, 34/51?
a. 3
b. 5
c. 6
d. 10
ANS: A
The fraction
can be reduced to
can be reduced to
,
can be reduced to
,
can be reduced to
, and
.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding
REF: p. 48
17. Which fraction represents the largest part of a whole number?
a.
b.
c.
d.
ANS: C
When reduced to their lowest terms,
=
;
=
;
these to their lowest common denominator (24), we have
.
=
; and
=
;
=
=
. Then reducing
;
=
; and
=
is the largest part of the whole. (In this case, the whole number would be 24/24, which
is equal to 1.)
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding
18. What is the correct response when
REF: p. 48
,
, and
are added together and then reduced to the
lowest terms?
a.
b.
c.
d.
ANS: C
First converting the mixed number fraction
common denominator (16).
=
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding
+
=
+
. Then convert all fractions to their lowest
=
=
.
REF: pp. 48-49
19. Which fraction represents 0.6?
a.
b.
c.
d.
ANS: D
The decimal 0.6 represents 6 tenths (
) of the number 1. The fraction
can be reduced to
.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding
REF: p. 53
20. Which fraction represents the largest part of a whole?
a. 2/16
b. 4/16
c. 8/16
d. 12/16
ANS: D
In this case, the whole number is 16/16 (1). The closes fraction to the whole number is the
largest fraction, 12/16.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding
REF: p. 47
21. Which fraction represents the largest part of a whole?
a. 1/3
b. 1/5
c. 1/10
d. 1/20
ANS: A
In order to find this answer, first convert all the fractions to their lowest common
denominator, which in this case is 60. So, 1/3 = 20/60, 1/5 = 12/60, 1/10 = 6/60, and 1/20 =
3/60. The whole number is 60/60. The fraction closest (larger than the others, representing the
largest part of the whole) to the whole is 20/60.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding
REF: p. 48
22. Which fraction represents a whole number?
a. 4/20
b. 5/20
c. 10/20
d. 20/20
ANS: D
These fractions all have the same denominator, although it is not the lowest common
denominator. The fraction that is the whole number is 20/20 (which can be reduced to 1).
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding
REF: p. 47
23. Which fraction is improper?
a. 20/15
b. 15/15
c. 10/15
d. 5/15
ANS: A
An improper fraction is one in which the numerator has a greater value than the denominator
and is therefore always greater than 1. Only 20/15 has a numerator greater than the
denominator. It can be expressed as 1 and 5/15 (so it is greater than 1).
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding
REF: p. 47
24. Which fraction is reduced to its lowest common denominator?
a. 3/17
b. 4/8
c. 2/20
d. 5/15
ANS: A
Of these fractions, 4/8 can be further reduced to 1/4, 2/20 can be further reduced to 1/10, 5/15
can be further reduced to 1/3. Only 3/17 cannot be further reduced.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding
REF: p. 48
25. Which decimal represents the smallest part of a whole?
a.
b.
c.
d.
0.2
0.15
0.085
0.85
ANS: C
Of these decimals, 0.2 represents 2/10, 0.15 represents 15/100, 0.085 represents 85/1000, and
0.85 represents 85/100.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding
REF: p. 50
26. Which number expressed 7/8 as a decimal?
a. 0.78
b. 0.875
c. 1.14
d. 2.288
ANS: B
To calculate the decimal amount of a fraction, divide the numerator (7) by the denominator
(8). 7/8 = 0.875.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding
REF: pp. 52-53
27. What amount represents the best rounding of 7.68 mL?
a. 5 mL
b. 7.6 mL
c. 7.7 mL
d. 10 mL
ANS: C
Common syringes, medication spoons, and medication cups are only calibrated to a tenth of
an mL. If a calculation goes out to more than one place past the decimal (is uneven), round up
or down to the next tenth of a place depending on whether the end number is below 5 or is 5
or above. In this case, the end decimal number is 8, which is higher than 5. So, round 7.68 up
to 7.7.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding
REF: p. 53
28. What is 12% of 60?
a. 5
b. 7.2
c. 10.6
d. 12.8
ANS: B
To get the percent of a number, multiply the number by the percentage you want. In this case,
60 ๏ด 0.12 = 7.2. Remember that percent is based on 100. So, 12% is represented by the
decimal 0.12.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding
REF: p. 53
29. What is the correct answer to adding the following three decimals: 5.82, 19.06, and 27.33?
a.
b.
c.
d.
46.39
51.21
52.21
104.39
ANS: C
5.82
19.06
27.33
52.21
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding
REF: pp. 50-51
30. What is the correct answer (without rounding) to multiplying 19.06 by 13.22?
a. 197.6231
b. 251.9732
c. 309.5522
d. 322.8121
ANS: B
19.06
๏ด 13.22
3812
3812
5718
1906
251.9732
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding
REF: pp. 51-52
COMPLETION
1. A patient is prescribed aspirin 650 mg orally. The aspirin form on hand is 325 mg/tablet. How
many tablets is the correct dose?
_____ tablet(s)
ANS:
2
Want 650 mg/Have 325 mg;
= 2.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying or Higher
REF: p. 55
2. A patient is prescribed 160 mg of acetaminophen (Tylenol). The drug on hand is
acetaminophen
_____ mL
ANS:
5
. How many milliliters is the correct dose?
Want
, Have
;
= 2 ๏ด 2.5 mL = 5 mL.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying or Higher
REF: pp. 54-55
3. A patient is prescribed 0.0625 mg of digoxin (Lanoxin). The drug on hand is digoxin 0.05
mg/mL. How many milliliters is the correct dose?
_____ mL
ANS:
1.25
Want
, Have
;
= 1.25 ๏ด 1 mL = 1.25 mL.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying or Higher
REF: p. 56
4. A patient is prescribed 750 mg of amoxicillin (Amoxil). The drug on hand is amoxicillin
. How many milliliters is the correct dose?
_____ mL
ANS:
15
Want
, Have
;
= 3 ๏ด 5 mL = 15 mL.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying or Higher
REF: p. 56
5. A pediatric patient is prescribed 20 mg of acetaminophen (Tylenol). The drug on hand is
acetaminophen
. How many milliliters is the correct dose?
_____ mL
ANS:
0.6
Want
, Have
;
= 0.25 ๏ด 2.5 mL = 0.625 mL, rounded down to 0.6 mL.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying or Higher
REF: p. 56
6. A pediatric patient is prescribed 0.004 mg of digoxin (Lanoxin) orally as a one-time dose
now. The drug on hand is digoxin 0.05 mg/mL. How many drops is the correct dose?
_____ gtt
ANS:
1
Want
, Have
;
= 0.08 ๏ด 1 mL = 0.08 mL, at 15 gtt/mL = 0.08 ๏ด 15 =
1.2 gtt, rounded down to 1 gtt.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying or Higher
REF: p. 56
7. An infant is prescribed 50 mg of amoxicillin (Amoxil). The drug on hand is amoxicillin
. How many milliliters is the correct dose?
_____ mL
ANS:
1
Want
, Have
;
=
๏ด 5 mL = 1 mL.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying or Higher
REF: p. 56
8. A patient is prescribed 4 mg of morphine IV. The drug on hand is morphine 10 mg in a 1 mL
syringe. How many milliliters is the correct dose?
_____ mL
ANS:
0.4
Want
, Have
;
= 0.4 ๏ด 1 mL = 0.4 mL.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying or Higher
REF: p. 56
9. A patient is prescribed 25 mg of meperidine (Demerol) IV. The drug on hand is meperidine
100 mg/mL. How many milliliters is the correct dose?
_____ mL
ANS:
0.23
Want
, Have
;
= 0.25 ๏ด 1 mL = 0.25 mL.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying or Higher
REF: p. 56
10. A patient is prescribed 2000 units of heparin subcutaneously. The drug on hand is heparin
5000 units/mL. How many milliliters is the correct dose?
_____ mL
ANS:
0.4
Understanding Pharmacology Essentials for Medication Safety 2nd Edition Workman Test Bank
Full Download: https://testbanklive.com/download/understanding-pharmacology-essentials-for-medication-safety-2nd-edition-work
Want
, Have
;
DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying or Higher
= 0.4 ๏ด 1 mL = 0.4 mL.
REF: p. 56
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