Preview Extract

113
The hindsight bias refers to people’s tendency to
๏ท dismiss the value of replication. Incorrect
๏ท reject any ideas that cannot be scientifically tested. Incorrect
๏ท exaggerate their ability to have foreseen the outcome of past
events. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท assume that correlation proves causation. Incorrect
๏ท overestimate the extent to which others share their
opinions. Incorrect
114
Giving half the members of a group some purported
psychological finding and the other half an opposite result is an
easy way to demonstrate the impact of
๏ท overconfidence. Incorrect
๏ท illusory correlation. Incorrect
๏ท the hindsight bias. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท random sampling. Incorrect
๏ท the double-blind procedure. Incorrect
115
Professor Smith told one class that alcohol consumption has
been found to increase sexual desire. He informed another class
that alcohol consumption has been found to reduce sexual
appetite. The fact that neither class was surprised by the
information they received best illustrates the power of
๏ท overconfidence. Incorrect
๏ท replication. Incorrect
๏ท the hindsight bias. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท the double-blind procedure. Incorrect
๏ท the placebo effect. Incorrect
116
The hindsight bias leads people to perceive research findings as
๏ท invalid. Incorrect
๏ท unpredictable. Incorrect
๏ท inexplicable. Incorrect
๏ท unreplicable. Incorrect
๏ท unsurprising. (True Answer )Correct
117
Alexandra is told that research supports the value of cosmetic
surgery for boosting self-esteem. Belinda is told that the esteemenhancing value of cosmetic surgery has been refuted by
research. Both women would consider the findings to be
common sense. This best illustrates the power of
๏ท random sampling. Incorrect
๏ท overconfidence. Incorrect
๏ท the hindsight bias. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท illusory correlation. Incorrect
๏ท the double-blind procedure. Incorrect
118
According to Emily’s grandfather, Adolf Hitler’s obvious
emotional instability made it clear from the beginning days of
his international conflicts that Germany would inevitably lose
World War II. The grandfather’s claim best illustrates
๏ท the hindsight bias. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท illusory correlation. Incorrect
๏ท overconfidence. Incorrect
๏ท an illusion of control. Incorrect
๏ท random sampling. Incorrect
119
Formulating testable hypotheses before conducting research is
most directly useful for restraining a thinking error known as
๏ท random sampling. Incorrect
๏ท the hindsight bias. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท overconfidence. Incorrect
๏ท illusory correlation. Incorrect
๏ท random assignment. Incorrect
120
The scientific attitude of humility is most likely to be
undermined by
๏ท the hindsight bias. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท correlational evidence. Incorrect
๏ท random assignment. Incorrect
๏ท operational definitions. Incorrect
๏ท naturalistic observation. Incorrect
121
When we see certain outcomes as obvious based on what has
occurred, we may be experiencing
๏ท empiricism. Incorrect
๏ท critical thinking. Incorrect
๏ท hindsight bias. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท overconfidence. Incorrect
๏ท humility. Incorrect
122
Our tendency to believe we know more than we do illustrates
๏ท naturalistic observation. Incorrect
๏ท illusory correlation. Incorrect
๏ท overconfidence. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท the standard deviation. Incorrect
๏ท placebo. Incorrect
123
When provided with the unscrambled solution to anagrams,
people underestimate the difficulty of solving the anagrams by
themselves. This best illustrates
๏ท illusory correlation. Incorrect
๏ท hindsight bias. Incorrect
๏ท the placebo effect. Incorrect
๏ท wording effects. Incorrect
๏ท overconfidence. (True Answer )Correct
124
Thinking that she had outperformed most of her classmates,
Glenda was surprised to receive just an average grade on her
psychology test. Glenda’s experience best illustrates
๏ท overconfidence. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท the hindsight bias. Incorrect
๏ท the placebo effect. Incorrect
๏ท negative correlation. Incorrect
๏ท illusory correlation. Incorrect
125
Which of the following is most likely to inhibit critical
thinking?
๏ท operational definitions Incorrect
๏ท overconfidence (True Answer )Correct
๏ท random assignment Incorrect
๏ท naturalistic observation Incorrect
๏ท the double-blind procedure Incorrect
126
Megan was certain that she would never live far away from her
family. However, in order to further her career, she decided to
move. Megan’s experience best illustrates
๏ท the hindsight bias. Incorrect
๏ท illusory correlation. Incorrect
๏ท random assignment. Incorrect
๏ท the empirical approach. Incorrect
๏ท overconfidence. (True Answer )Correct
127
Political officials who have no doubt that their own economic
and military predictions will come true most clearly
demonstrate
๏ท illusory correlation. Incorrect
๏ท random sampling. Incorrect
๏ท overconfidence. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท the placebo effect. Incorrect
๏ท operational definition. Incorrect
128
Sasha believes that she is a very good driver. Her belief leads
her to take unnecessary risks, such as driving too fast and
cutting in front of other drivers. Sasha’s driving appears to be
affected by
๏ท hindsight bias. Incorrect
๏ท overconfidence. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท intuition. Incorrect
๏ท illusory correlations. Incorrect
๏ท empiricism. Incorrect
129
Basing decisions or conclusions on observable evidence
describes which of the following?
๏ท hindsight bias Incorrect
๏ท confirmation bias Incorrect
๏ท empirical approach (True Answer )Correct
๏ท overconfidence Incorrect
๏ท operational definition Incorrect
130
Which of the following questions most likely could be answered
using an empirical approach?
๏ท Is human nature basically good or evil? Incorrect
๏ท What causes aggression? (True Answer )Correct
๏ท What happens after we die? Incorrect
๏ท How will style choices change in the future? Incorrect
๏ท What is the basis of faith? Incorrect
131
What is the advantage of researchers using an empirical
approach in evaluating the accuracy of eyewitness testimony?
๏ท Researchers would experience greater overconfidence in
their findings. Incorrect
๏ท Such an approach allows researchers to set aside their critical
thinking and explore their intuition. Incorrect
๏ท Under controlled conditions, researchers collect evidence that
may justify a cause-effect conclusion. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท The empirical approach fosters conditions necessary for
hindsight bias to occur. Incorrect
๏ท Researchers may greatly overestimate eyewitness
recollections when using the empirical approach. Incorrect
132
Dr. Donelian wants to reduce his students’ perception that
psychological experiments merely document the obvious. His
best strategy would be to ask the students to
๏ท describe how experimental hypotheses were derived from
basic psychological principles. Incorrect
๏ท predict the outcomes of experiments before they are told the
actual results. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท explain the outcomes of experiments after they are told the
actual results. Incorrect
๏ท personally engage in naturalistic observation. Incorrect
๏ท survey students living on campus Incorrect
133
Historians of science describe which three attitudes as the basis
of the scientific viewpoint?
๏ท intelligence, dedication, thoroughness Incorrect
๏ท morality, detail-orientation, cynicism Incorrect
๏ท achievement-oriented, intellectual, empirical Incorrect
๏ท curiosity, skepticism, humility (True Answer )Correct
๏ท atheism, humanism, cognition Incorrect
134
Which two questions exemplify the scientific attitude?
๏ท What do you mean? How do you know? (True Answer
)Correct
๏ท Who believes you? What are their qualifications? Incorrect
๏ท How common is this answer? How many people
agree? Incorrect
๏ท Is this an established truth? How long has it been considered
fact? Incorrect
๏ท Which truths does this agree with? Which truths does it
contradict? Incorrect
135
A questioning attitude regarding psychologists’ assumptions
and hidden values best illustrates
๏ท hypotheses. Incorrect
๏ท critical thinking. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท the hindsight bias. Incorrect
๏ท overconfidence. Incorrect
๏ท illusory correlation. Incorrect
136
When you question whether anecdotal evidence can be
generalized to all people, you are applying
๏ท overconfidence. Incorrect
๏ท the placebo effect. Incorrect
๏ท the hindsight bias. Incorrect
๏ท random assignment. Incorrect
๏ท critical thinking. (True Answer )Correct
137
Critical thinkers can best be described as
๏ท questioning. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท cynical. Incorrect
๏ท overconfident. Incorrect
๏ท pessimistic. Incorrect
๏ท impatient. Incorrect
138
To examine assumptions, discern hidden values, evaluate
evidence, and assess conclusions is to engage in
๏ท naturalistic observation. Incorrect
๏ท critical thinking. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท generating hypotheses. Incorrect
๏ท creating operational definitions. Incorrect
๏ท experimentation. Incorrect
139
Examining correlational evidence to determine what further
research would be needed to establish a causal relationship is
an example of ________ thinking?
๏ท correlational Incorrect
๏ท experimental Incorrect
๏ท naturalistic Incorrect
๏ท critical (True Answer )Correct
๏ท hindsight Incorrect
140
The news media reported that a new pesticide was not harmful
to humans. Which of the following statements best exemplifies
critical thinking in response to this report?
๏ท โI think I will try this pesticide on my own garden to kill
pests.โ Incorrect
๏ท โI don’t like to use pesticides, but this one is safe.โ Incorrect
๏ท โI think I’ll use this product, but I think I’ll wear
gloves.โ Incorrect
๏ท โI wonder who funded this study?โ (True Answer )Correct
๏ท โI don’t believe this study because I got a rash after using this
poison on my garden.โ Incorrect
141
According to Professor Fayad, we like people who like us
because their affection for us boosts our own self-esteem. His
idea is an example of
๏ท naturalistic observation. Incorrect
๏ท illusory correlation. Incorrect
๏ท hindsight bias. Incorrect
๏ท replication. Incorrect
๏ท a theory. (True Answer )Correct
142
What do scientists call an explanation that organizes
observations and predicts future behaviors or events?
๏ท hypothesis Incorrect
๏ท theory (True Answer )Correct
๏ท critical thinking Incorrect
๏ท operational definition Incorrect
๏ท replication Incorrect
143
Professor Shalet contends that parents and children have
similar levels of intelligence largely because they share common
genes. His idea is best described as a(n)
๏ท theory. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท replication. Incorrect
๏ท naturalistic observation. Incorrect
๏ท illusory correlation. Incorrect
๏ท hindsight bias. Incorrect
144
A hypothesis is a(n)
๏ท observable relationship between specific independent and
dependent variables. Incorrect
๏ท testable prediction that gives direction to research. (True
Answer )Correct
๏ท set of principles that organizes observations and explains
newly discovered facts. Incorrect
๏ท unprovable assumption about the unobservable processes
that underlie psychological functioning. Incorrect
๏ท statement of procedures used to define research
variables. Incorrect
145
Hypotheses are best described as
๏ท assumptions. Incorrect
๏ท replications. Incorrect
๏ท explanations. Incorrect
๏ท confirmations. Incorrect
๏ท predictions. (True Answer )Correct
146
Professor Delano suggests that because people are especially
attracted to those who are good-looking, handsome men will be
more successful than average-looking men in getting a job. The
professor’s prediction regarding employment success is an
example of
๏ท the hindsight bias. Incorrect
๏ท the placebo effect. Incorrect
๏ท a hypothesis. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท illusory correlation. Incorrect
๏ท an operational definition. Incorrect
147
Dr. Roberts hypothesized that students in a classroom seating
30 would get higher course grades than students seated in an
auditorium seating 300. In this example,
๏ท Dr. Roberts has found a cause-effect relationship. Incorrect
๏ท Dr. Roberts has found a positive correlation between
classroom size and course grades. Incorrect
๏ท the independent variable is the measurement of course
grades. Incorrect
๏ท classroom size has been operationally defined. (True Answer
)Correct
๏ท Dr. Roberts has demonstrated the importance of random
sampling. Incorrect
148
A specification of how a researcher measures a research
variable is known as a(n)
๏ท standard deviation. Incorrect
๏ท control condition. Incorrect
๏ท replication. Incorrect
๏ท operational definition. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท observation. Incorrect
149
An experiment was designed to study the potential impact of
alcohol consumption on emotional stability. A specification of
the procedures used to measure emotional stability illustrates
๏ท the independent variable. Incorrect
๏ท an operational definition. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท the double-blind procedure. Incorrect
๏ท random assignment. Incorrect
๏ท the dependent variable. Incorrect
150
The process of replication is most likely to be facilitated by
๏ท the hindsight bias. Incorrect
๏ท overconfidence. Incorrect
๏ท illusory correlation. Incorrect
๏ท operational definitions. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท the placebo effect. Incorrect
151
Replication involves
๏ท the selection of random samples. Incorrect
๏ท perceiving order in random events. Incorrect
๏ท repeating an earlier research study. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท rejecting ideas that cannot be scientifically tested. Incorrect
๏ท overestimating the extent to which others share our
views. Incorrect
152
Which technique involves repeating the essence of an earlier
research study with different participants and in different
circumstances?
๏ท replication (True Answer )Correct
๏ท correlational research Incorrect
๏ท random sampling Incorrect
๏ท naturalistic observation Incorrect
๏ท the double-blind procedure Incorrect
153
The explanatory power of a scientific theory is most closely
linked to its capacity to generate testable
๏ท assumptions. Incorrect
๏ท correlations. Incorrect
๏ท predictions. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท variables. Incorrect
๏ท hypotheses. Incorrect
154
Professor Ambra was skeptical about the accuracy of recently
reported research on sleep deprivation. Which process would
best enable her to assess the reliability of these findings?
๏ท naturalistic observation Incorrect
๏ท replication (True Answer )Correct
๏ท random sampling Incorrect
๏ท the case study Incorrect
๏ท standard deviation Incorrect
155
Why is replication important to science?
๏ท It allows you to obtain a representative sample of cases to
study. Incorrect
๏ท The natural setting eliminates the artificial environment of a
lab. Incorrect
๏ท Repeated research with similar results increases confidence
in the reliability of the original findings. (True Answer
)Correct
๏ท Researchers can test the impact of belief on
behavior. Incorrect
๏ท Minimizing preexisting differences between groups increases
confidence in the findings. Incorrect
156
To understand the unusual behavior of an adult client, a
clinical psychologist carefully investigates the client’s current
life situation and his physical, social-cultural, and educational
history. Which research method has the psychologist used?
๏ท the survey Incorrect
๏ท the case study (True Answer )Correct
๏ท experimentation Incorrect
๏ท naturalistic observation Incorrect
๏ท correlation Incorrect
157
Which research method is typically used to examine one
participant in depth, usually because the individual’s
situation/behavior is rare or unusual?
๏ท survey Incorrect
๏ท correlation Incorrect
๏ท experiment Incorrect
๏ท case study (True Answer )Correct
๏ท scientific method Incorrect
158
Which of the following researchers used the case study method,
carefully observing one exceptional individual in depth to reach
conclusions that might be true of all of us?
๏ท Jean Piaget (True Answer )Correct
๏ท James Randi Incorrect
๏ท Jane Goodall Incorrect
๏ท William James Incorrect
๏ท John B. Watson Incorrect
159
In 1953, H.M. underwent surgery to control his seizures.
Doctors removed tissue from the hippocampus. As a result
H.M.’s memory was severely impaired. Psychologists studied
H.M.’s memory function until his death in 2008. Which
research method did the psychologists utilize in this situation?
๏ท naturalistic observation Incorrect
๏ท correlation Incorrect
๏ท survey Incorrect
๏ท experimentation Incorrect
๏ท case study (True Answer )Correct
160
In 1848, Phineas Gage, a railroad construction foreman,
survived when an explosion drove an iron rod through his head
damaging the functioning of the frontal lobes. This instance
provided evidence that the frontal lobe plays a role in
personality and behavior. Researchers have continued to study
Gage’s brain to better understand this link. Which research
method is being used?
๏ท experimentation Incorrect
๏ท correlation Incorrect
๏ท case study (True Answer )Correct
๏ท naturalistic observation Incorrect
๏ท survey Incorrect
161
The biggest danger of relying on case-study evidence is that it
๏ท is based on naturalistic observation. Incorrect
๏ท may be unrepresentative of what is generally true. (True
Answer )Correct
๏ท overestimates the importance of operational
definitions. Incorrect
๏ท leads us to underestimate the causal relationships between
events. Incorrect
๏ท relies mostly on correlational rather than causational
evidence. Incorrect
162
In which research method do we study one exceptional
individual in depth and try to carefully draw conclusions about
others based on the evidence?
๏ท naturalistic observation Incorrect
๏ท experimentation Incorrect
๏ท hindsight bias Incorrect
๏ท case study (True Answer )Correct
๏ท random sampling Incorrect
163
What is the primary limitation of the case study research
method?
๏ท It is not an empirical method. Incorrect
๏ท The case study is not part of the scientific method. Incorrect
๏ท Random sampling must be used to ensure representative
findings. Incorrect
๏ท Individual cases can be misleading and result in false
generalizations. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท Correlational findings from case studies cannot be
interpreted as causal. Incorrect
164
A researcher interested in investigating the attitudes or
opinions of a large sample of people is most likely to use which
research method?
๏ท survey (True Answer )Correct
๏ท correlation Incorrect
๏ท experiment Incorrect
๏ท case study Incorrect
๏ท naturalistic observation Incorrect
165
A majority of respondents in a national survey agreed that
โclassroom prayer should not be allowed in public schools.โ
Only 33 percent of respondents in a similar survey agreed that
โclassroom prayer in public schools should be banned.โ These
divergent findings best illustrate the importance of
๏ท operational definition. Incorrect
๏ท the hindsight bias. Incorrect
๏ท overconfidence. Incorrect
๏ท random assignment. Incorrect
๏ท wording effects. (True Answer )Correct
166
Surveys indicate that people are much less likely to support
โwelfareโ than โaid to the needy.โ These somewhat paradoxical
survey results best illustrate the importance of
๏ท random sampling. Incorrect
๏ท wording effects. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท the placebo effect. Incorrect
๏ท naturalistic observation. Incorrect
๏ท hindsight bias. Incorrect
167
Which research method would be most appropriate for
investigating the relationship between the religious beliefs of
Americans and their attitudes toward abortion?
๏ท the survey (True Answer )Correct
๏ท naturalistic observation Incorrect
๏ท the case study Incorrect
๏ท experimentation Incorrect
๏ท random assignment Incorrect
168
The complete set of cases from which samples may be drawn is
called a(n)
๏ท control condition. Incorrect
๏ท population. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท case study. Incorrect
๏ท independent variable. Incorrect
๏ท survey. Incorrect
169
In order to learn about the political attitudes of all students
enrolled at Arizona State University, Professor Marlow
randomly selected 800 of these students to complete a
questionnaire. In this instance, all the students enrolled at
Arizona State University are considered to be a(n)
๏ท independent variable. Incorrect
๏ท representative sample. Incorrect
๏ท control. Incorrect
๏ท dependent variable. Incorrect
๏ท population. (True Answer )Correct
170
Which procedure helps to ensure that the participants in a
survey are representative of a larger population?
๏ท random assignment Incorrect
๏ท replication Incorrect
๏ท correlation Incorrect
๏ท naturalistic observation Incorrect
๏ท random sampling (True Answer )Correct
171
To learn about the TV viewing habits of all the children
attending Oakbridge School, Professor DeVries randomly
selected and interviewed 50 of the school’s students. In this
instance, all the children attending the school are considered to
be a(n)
๏ท population. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท representative sample. Incorrect
๏ท independent variable. Incorrect
๏ท control condition. Incorrect
๏ท dependent variable. Incorrect
172
To assess reactions to a proposed tuition hike at her college,
Ariana sent a questionnaire to every fifteenth person in the
college registrar’s alphabetical listing of all currently enrolled
students. Ariana employed the technique of
๏ท random assignment. Incorrect
๏ท naturalistic observation. Incorrect
๏ท replication. Incorrect
๏ท correlation. Incorrect
๏ท random sampling. (True Answer )Correct
173
After noting that a majority of professional basketball players
are African-American, Ervin concluded that African-
Americans are better athletes than members of other racial
groups. Ervin’s conclusion best illustrates the danger of
๏ท replication. Incorrect
๏ท hindsight bias. Incorrect
๏ท the placebo effect. Incorrect
๏ท generalizing from vivid cases. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท randomly assigning variables. Incorrect
174
Which of the following is most useful for helping survey
researchers avoid false generalizations?
๏ท the case study Incorrect
๏ท naturalistic observation Incorrect
๏ท random sampling (True Answer )Correct
๏ท operational definitions Incorrect
๏ท standard deviations. Incorrect
175
Psychologists who carefully watch the behavior of chimpanzee
societies in the jungle are using a research method known as
๏ท the survey. Incorrect
๏ท experimentation. Incorrect
๏ท naturalistic observation. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท the case study. Incorrect
๏ท random sampling. Incorrect
176
To describe the behavior of animals in their native habitats,
researchers are most likely to make use of
๏ท survey research. Incorrect
๏ท the double-blind procedure. Incorrect
๏ท random assignment. Incorrect
๏ท experimental methods. Incorrect
๏ท naturalistic observation. (True Answer )Correct
177
To study the development of relationships, Dr. Rajiv carefully
observed and recorded patterns of verbal and nonverbal
behaviors among boys and girls in the school yard. Which
research method did Dr. Rajiv employ?
๏ท naturalistic observation (True Answer )Correct
๏ท replication Incorrect
๏ท the survey Incorrect
๏ท the case study Incorrect
๏ท experimentation Incorrect
178
Professor Ober carefully observes and records the behaviors of
children in their classrooms in order to track the development
of their social and intellectual skills. Professor Ober is most
clearly engaged in
๏ท survey research. Incorrect
๏ท naturalistic observation. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท experimentation. Incorrect
๏ท replication. Incorrect
๏ท correlation. Incorrect
179
To compare the pace of life in different countries, investigators
measured the speed with which postal clerks completed a
simple request. This best illustrates the use of a research
method known as
๏ท the case study. Incorrect
๏ท naturalistic observation. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท random assignment. Incorrect
๏ท the double-blind procedure. Incorrect
๏ท the survey. Incorrect
180
Correlational research is most useful for purposes of
๏ท explanation. Incorrect
๏ท prediction. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท control. Incorrect
๏ท replication. Incorrect
๏ท experimentation. Incorrect
181
A correlation coefficient is a measure of the
๏ท difference between the highest and lowest scores in a
distribution. Incorrect
๏ท average squared deviation of scores from a sample
mean. Incorrect
๏ท direction and strength of the relationship between two
variables. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท statistical significance of a difference between two sample
means. Incorrect
๏ท frequency of scores at each level of some measure. Incorrect
182
Which of the following statistical measures is most helpful for
indicating the extent to which high school grades predict college
grades?
๏ท standard deviation Incorrect
๏ท mean Incorrect
๏ท median Incorrect
๏ท correlation coefficient (True Answer )Correct
๏ท range Incorrect
183
To graphically represent the correlation between two variables,
researchers often construct a
๏ท skewed distribution. Incorrect
๏ท scatterplot. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท standard deviation. Incorrect
๏ท bar graph. Incorrect
๏ท pie chart. Incorrect
184
If psychologists discovered that wealthy people are less satisfied
with their marriages than poor people are, this would indicate
that wealth and marital satisfaction are
๏ท causally related. Incorrect
๏ท negatively correlated. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท independent variables. Incorrect
๏ท dependent variables. Incorrect
๏ท positively correlated. Incorrect
185
If college graduates typically earn more money than high school
graduates, this would indicate that level of education and
income are
๏ท causally related. Incorrect
๏ท positively correlated. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท independent variables. Incorrect
๏ท dependent variables. Incorrect
๏ท negatively correlated. Incorrect
186
If the correlation between the physical weight and reading
ability of children is +0.85, this would indicate that
๏ท there is very little statistical relationship between weight and
reading ability among children. Incorrect
๏ท low body weight has a negative effect on the reading abilities
of children. Incorrect
๏ท better reading ability is associated with greater physical
weight among children. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท body weight has no causal influence on the reading abilities
of children. Incorrect
๏ท weight is a causal variable dependent on reading
ability. Incorrect
187
Which of the following correlations between self-esteem and
body weight would enable you to most accurately predict body
weight from knowledge of level of self-esteem?
๏ท +0.60 (True Answer )Correct
๏ท +0.01 Incorrect
๏ท โ0.10 Incorrect
๏ท โ0.06 Incorrect
๏ท 0.00 Incorrect
188
Which of the following correlation coefficients expresses the
weakest degree of relationship between two variables?
๏ท โ0.12 (True Answer )Correct
๏ท +1.00 Incorrect
๏ท โ0.99 Incorrect
๏ท +0.25 Incorrect
๏ท โ0.50 Incorrect
189
Which of the following correlations between annual income and
education level would best enable you to predict annual income
on the basis of level of education?
๏ท +0.05 Incorrect
๏ท โ0.01 Incorrect
๏ท +0.10 Incorrect
๏ท +0.50 (True Answer )Correct
๏ท โ0.001 Incorrect
190
Which of the following correlation coefficients expresses the
strongest degree of relationship between two variables?
๏ท +0.10 Incorrect
๏ท โ0.67 (True Answer )Correct
๏ท 0.00 Incorrect
๏ท โ0.10 Incorrect
๏ท +0.59 Incorrect
191
To determine whether the strength of people’s self-esteem is
related to their income levels, researchers would most likely
make use of
๏ท case studies. Incorrect
๏ท correlational research. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท experimentation. Incorrect
๏ท naturalistic observation. Incorrect
๏ท double-blind. Incorrect
192
To discover the extent to which economic status can be used to
predict political preferences, researchers are most likely to use
๏ท the case study approach. Incorrect
๏ท naturalistic observation. Incorrect
๏ท correlational measures. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท experimental research. Incorrect
๏ท random assignment. Incorrect
193
Study hours
Test grades
4
75
5
85
3
70
6
70
7
75
1
45
2
60
7
90
1
35
7
100
Based on the information provided in the chart above, which
scatterplot best represents the relationship between study hours and
test grades. (In the scatterplots below, the x-axis is hours of study and
the y-axis is test grades.)
๏ท 1 Incorrect
๏ท 2 (True Answer )Correct
๏ท 3 Incorrect
๏ท 4 Incorrect
๏ท 5 Incorrect
194
A moderate positive correlation has been found between a person’s
weight and hours of television watched per week. Which of the following
scatterplots best shows this relationship?
(Drawings 1-4 taken from
www.stat.auckland.ac.nz/~teachers/2003/regression/classnotesfilledin.doc)
๏ท 1 (True Answer )Correct
๏ท 2 Incorrect
๏ท 3 Incorrect
๏ท 4 Incorrect
๏ท 5 Incorrect
195
Which of the following scatterplots represents the weakest
relationship?
(Drawings 1-4 taken from
www.stat.auckland.ac.nz/~teachers/2003/regression/classnotesfilledin.doc)
๏ท 1 Incorrect
๏ท 2 Incorrect
๏ท 3 Incorrect
๏ท 4 (True Answer )Correct
๏ท 5 Incorrect
196
Which of the following scatterplots represents the strongest
relationship?
(Drawings 1-4 taken from
www.stat.auckland.ac.nz/~teachers/2003/regression/classnotesfilledin.doc)
๏ท 1 Incorrect
๏ท 2 Incorrect
๏ท 3 (True Answer )Correct
๏ท 4 Incorrect
๏ท 5 Incorrect
197
An extensive survey revealed that children with relatively high
self-esteem tend to picture God as kind and loving, whereas
those with lower self-esteem tend to perceive God as angry. The
researchers concluded that the children’s self-esteem had
apparently influenced their views of God. This conclusion best
illustrates the danger of
๏ท perceiving order in random events. Incorrect
๏ท generalizing from extreme examples. Incorrect
๏ท randomly sampling children’s views. Incorrect
๏ท exaggerating the extent to which others share our
beliefs. Incorrect
๏ท assuming that correlation proves causation. (True Answer
)Correct
198
Following the scientific discovery that a specific brain structure
is significantly larger in violent individuals than in those who
are nonviolent, a news headline announced: โEnlarged Brain
Structure Triggers Violent Acts.โ The headline writer should
most clearly be warned about the dangers of
๏ท perceiving illusory correlations. Incorrect
๏ท explaining events in hindsight. Incorrect
๏ท confusing correlation with causation. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท generalizing from unrepresentative samples. Incorrect
๏ท discerning order in random events. Incorrect
199
If psychologists discovered that more intelligent parents have
smarter children than less intelligent parents, this would
demonstrate that
๏ท intelligence is inherited. Incorrect
๏ท more intelligent parents provide their children with greater
educational opportunities than do less intelligent
parents. Incorrect
๏ท the intelligence of parents and children is positively
correlated. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท experiments based on this relationship would indicate
causation. Incorrect
๏ท intelligence of children and parents are negatively
correlated. Incorrect
200
Which of the following statements is most correct about the
relationship between correlation and causation?
๏ท Correlations are statistical relationships, causations are
logical relationships. Incorrect
๏ท Correlation indicates the possibility of a causal relationship,
but it does not prove causation. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท If one variable is strongly positively correlated with another
variable, the relationship is causal. Incorrect
๏ท if one variable is strongly negatively correlated with another
variable, the relationship is not causal. Incorrect
๏ท Both correlations and causations need to be proven with
experimental data. Incorrect
201
Which of the following is the best definition of illusory
correlation?
๏ท a statistical relationship between two variables Incorrect
๏ท a perceived but nonexistent correlation (True Answer
)Correct
๏ท any independent variable that does not truly cause a
dependent variable Incorrect
๏ท a scatterplot indicating the likelihood that a variable will or
will not change Incorrect
๏ท a predication about the relationship between two
variables Incorrect
202
The belief that weather conditions signal the onset of arthritis
pain best illustrates
๏ท an illusory correlation. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท operational definition. Incorrect
๏ท the hindsight bias. Incorrect
๏ท overconfidence. Incorrect
๏ท random sampling. Incorrect
203
The sequential occurrence of two highly unusual events is most
likely to contribute to
๏ท random sampling. Incorrect
๏ท the hindsight bias. Incorrect
๏ท the placebo effect. Incorrect
๏ท an illusory correlation. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท overconfidence. Incorrect
204
Because she had a serious traffic accident on Friday the 13th of
last month, Felicia is convinced that all Friday the 13ths will
bring bad luck. Felicia’s belief best illustrates
๏ท the illusion of control. Incorrect
๏ท illusory correlation. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท the hindsight bias. Incorrect
๏ท overconfidence. Incorrect
๏ท random sampling. Incorrect
205
Redelmeier and Tversky (1996) followed 18 patients with
arthritis for 18 months. Patients were asked to record their
pain and joint tenderness, while researchers documented
changes in the weather. Nearly all patients believed that their
condition was associated with weather changes, when the actual
correlation was near zero. These participants need to be
reminded that
๏ท the results may not be statistically significant. Incorrect
๏ท we are likely to recall instances that confirm our
beliefs. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท the sample size may not have been representative of the
population. Incorrect
๏ท the results of correlational studies are typically highly
questionable. Incorrect
๏ท subtle changes in how questions are worded can have major
effects on results. Incorrect
206
The King James Version of the Bible was completed when
William Shakespeare was 46 years old. In Psalm 46 of this
translation, the forty-sixth word is โshake,โ and the forty-sixth
word from the end is โspear.โ Before concluding that the
biblical translators were trying to be humorous with these
specific word placements, you would be best advised to
recognize the danger of
๏ท considering these facts as statistically significant. Incorrect
๏ท randomly sampling biblical passages. Incorrect
๏ท generalizing from extreme examples. Incorrect
๏ท assuming that most people share your opinions. Incorrect
๏ท perceiving order in coincidental events. (True Answer
)Correct
207
A researcher interested in proving a causal relationship
between two variables should choose which research method?
๏ท correlation Incorrect
๏ท survey Incorrect
๏ท naturalistic observation Incorrect
๏ท experiment (True Answer )Correct
๏ท case study Incorrect
208
In a test of the effects of sleep deprivation on problem-solving
skills, research participants are allowed to sleep either 4 or 8
hours on each of three consecutive nights. This research is an
example of
๏ท naturalistic observation. Incorrect
๏ท survey research. Incorrect
๏ท a case study. Incorrect
๏ท an experiment. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท a correlational study. Incorrect
209
A research method in which an investigator manipulates
factors that potentially produce a particular behavior is called
a(n)
๏ท survey. Incorrect
๏ท experiment. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท case study. Incorrect
๏ท naturalistic observation. Incorrect
๏ท correlational method. Incorrect
210
To exercise maximum control over the factors they are
interested in studying, researchers engage in
๏ท case studies. Incorrect
๏ท correlational research. Incorrect
๏ท experimentation. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท replication. Incorrect
๏ท surveys. Incorrect
211
The most foolproof way of testing the true effectiveness of a
newly introduced method of psychological therapy is by means
of
๏ท survey research. Incorrect
๏ท case study research. Incorrect
๏ท naturalistic observation. Incorrect
๏ท correlational research. Incorrect
๏ท experimental research. (True Answer )Correct
212
Researchers are interested in studying the relationship between
poor prenatal nutrition and early cognitive development.
Because of ethical concerns, which research method would be
most appropriate for researchers to use?
๏ท survey Incorrect
๏ท case study Incorrect
๏ท experimentation Incorrect
๏ท correlational (True Answer )Correct
๏ท naturalistic observation Incorrect
213
Researchers are interested in studying the impact of drugs on
human fetuses. In this case, why would a correlational study be
more appropriate than an experiment?
๏ท because cause and effect can only be determined by a
correlational study Incorrect
๏ท because correlational studies allow you to observe behavior
in nonartificial environments Incorrect
๏ท because researchers using correlational studies may
generalize to the population from an atypical case Incorrect
๏ท because participants could not be ethically assigned to an
experimental or control condition (True Answer )Correct
๏ท because correlational studies permit researchers to estimate
the reported behaviors of a whole population Incorrect
214
Researchers use experiments rather than other research
methods in order to distinguish between
๏ท facts and theories. Incorrect
๏ท causes and effects. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท case studies and surveys. Incorrect
๏ท random samples and representative samples. Incorrect
๏ท hypotheses and operational definitions. Incorrect
215
To accurately infer cause and effect, experimenters should use
๏ท random assignment. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท naturalistic observation. Incorrect
๏ท standard deviations. Incorrect
๏ท correlation coefficients. Incorrect
๏ท scatterplots. Incorrect
216
To assess the effect of televised violence on aggression,
researchers plan to expose one group of children to violent
movie scenes and another group to nonviolent scenes. To
reduce the chance that the children in one group have more
aggressive personalities than those in the other group, the
researchers should make use of
๏ท random assignment. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท the double-blind procedure. Incorrect
๏ท naturalistic observations. Incorrect
๏ท operational definitions. Incorrect
๏ท replication. Incorrect
217
To study the effects of noise on worker productivity,
researchers have one group of subjects work in a noisy room
and a second group work in a quiet room. To ensure that any
differences in the productivity of the two groups actually result
from the different noise levels to which the groups are exposed,
the researchers would use
๏ท the case study. Incorrect
๏ท correlational measurement. Incorrect
๏ท naturalistic observation. Incorrect
๏ท replication. Incorrect
๏ท random assignment. (True Answer )Correct
218
Both the researchers and the participants in a memory study
are ignorant about which participants have actually received a
potentially memory-enhancing drug and which have received a
placebo. This investigation involves the use of
๏ท naturalistic observation. Incorrect
๏ท the hindsight bias. Incorrect
๏ท random sampling. Incorrect
๏ท the double-blind procedure. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท replication. Incorrect
219
To minimize the extent to which outcome differences between
experimental and control conditions can be attributed to
placebo effects, researchers make use of
๏ท random sampling. Incorrect
๏ท the double-blind procedure. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท random assignment. Incorrect
๏ท operational definitions. Incorrect
๏ท replication. Incorrect
220
Abdul has volunteered to participate in an experiment
evaluating the effectiveness of aspirin. Neither he nor the
experimenters know whether the pills he takes during the
experiment contain aspirin or are merely placebos. The
investigators are apparently making use of
๏ท naturalistic observation. Incorrect
๏ท illusory correlation. Incorrect
๏ท the double-blind procedure. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท random sampling. Incorrect
๏ท the overconfidence effect. Incorrect
221
In a study of the effects of alcohol consumption, some
participants drank a nonalcoholic beverage that actually
smelled and tasted like alcohol. This nonalcoholic drink was a
๏ท dependent variable. Incorrect
๏ท replication. Incorrect
๏ท placebo. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท random sample. Incorrect
๏ท double blind. Incorrect
222
The relief of pain following the ingestion of an inert substance
that is presumed to have medicinal benefits illustrates
๏ท random assignment. Incorrect
๏ท the hindsight bias. Incorrect
๏ท the double-blind effect. Incorrect
๏ท the placebo effect. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท illusory correlation. Incorrect
223
In a drug treatment study, participants given a pill containing
no actual drug are receiving a(n)
๏ท random sample. Incorrect
๏ท experimental treatment. Incorrect
๏ท double-blind. Incorrect
๏ท replication. Incorrect
๏ท placebo. (True Answer )Correct
224
The healing power of positive expectations is best illustrated by
๏ท overconfidence. Incorrect
๏ท illusory correlation. Incorrect
๏ท the placebo effect. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท hindsight bias. Incorrect
๏ท replication. Incorrect
225
In an experiment designed to study the effectiveness of a new
drug, research participants who receive a placebo are
participating in the ________ condition.
๏ท dependent variable Incorrect
๏ท correlational Incorrect
๏ท experimental Incorrect
๏ท replication Incorrect
๏ท control (True Answer )Correct
226
To provide a baseline against which they can evaluate the
effects of a specific treatment, experimenters make use of a(n)
๏ท dependent variable. Incorrect
๏ท random sample. Incorrect
๏ท independent variable. Incorrect
๏ท control condition. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท experimental condition. Incorrect
227
Random sampling is to ________ as random assignment is to
________.
๏ท correlational studies; case studies Incorrect
๏ท surveys; experiments (True Answer )Correct
๏ท illusory correlation; control group Incorrect
๏ท replication; correlation Incorrect
๏ท description; prediction Incorrect
228
Which technique most clearly minimizes the likelihood that any
outcome differences between the experimental and control
conditions can be attributed to age or personality differences in
research participants?
๏ท replication Incorrect
๏ท statistical measurement Incorrect
๏ท random assignment (True Answer )Correct
๏ท operational definitions Incorrect
๏ท the double-blind procedure Incorrect
229
Participants in an experiment are said to be blind if they are
uninformed about
๏ท the experimental hypothesis being tested. Incorrect
๏ท whether the experimental findings will be statistically
significant. Incorrect
๏ท how the dependent variable is measured. Incorrect
๏ท which experimental treatment, if any, they are
receiving. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท what research method is being used. Incorrect
230
Which of the following is true for those assigned to the
experimental group in an experiment?
๏ท The experimenter exerts the greatest influence on
participants’ behavior. Incorrect
๏ท The research participants are exposed to all the different
hypotheses. Incorrect
๏ท The experimental group receives the experimental
treatment (True Answer )Correct
๏ท The experimental group does not receive the experimental
treatment Incorrect
๏ท The operational definition is not applied to their
variables. Incorrect
231
Which of the following is true for those assigned to a control
group?
๏ท The experimenter exerts the greatest influence on
participants’ behavior. Incorrect
๏ท The research participants are exposed to all the different
experimental treatments. Incorrect
๏ท The research participants are exposed to the most favorable
levels of experimental treatment. Incorrect
๏ท The experimental treatment is absent. (True Answer
)Correct
๏ท The operational definition is not applied to their
variables. Incorrect
232
Knowing the difference between an experimental condition and
a control condition is most relevant to understanding the nature
of
๏ท correlations. Incorrect
๏ท random sampling. Incorrect
๏ท replication. Incorrect
๏ท independent variables. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท hindsight bias. Incorrect
233
In the hypothesis โStudents who study a list of terms in the
morning, just after waking up, will recall more terms than
students who study the list just before falling asleep,โ what is
the independent variable?
๏ท list of terms Incorrect
๏ท memorization Incorrect
๏ท time of day (True Answer )Correct
๏ท number of terms remembered Incorrect
๏ท students Incorrect
234
In the hypothesis โStudents who study a list of terms in the
morning, just after waking up, will recall more terms than
students who study the list just before falling asleep,โ what is
the dependent variable?
๏ท list of terms Incorrect
๏ท memorization Incorrect
๏ท time of day Incorrect
๏ท number of terms remembered (True Answer )Correct
๏ท students Incorrect
235
In an experiment, researchers manipulate one factor to see its
effect on another factor, called the
๏ท confounding variable. Incorrect
๏ท operational definition. Incorrect
๏ท control group. Incorrect
๏ท placebo effect. Incorrect
๏ท dependent variable. (True Answer )Correct
236
What technique do researchers use to reduce the impact of
confounding variables?
๏ท hindsight bias Incorrect
๏ท naturalistic observation Incorrect
๏ท scatterplots Incorrect
๏ท random assignment (True Answer )Correct
๏ท measures of central tendency Incorrect
237
When you read a bar graph, it is most important for you to
๏ท understand the concept of the overconfidence
effect. Incorrect
๏ท mentally transform the data into a scatterplot. Incorrect
๏ท identify the value of the standard deviation. Incorrect
๏ท note the range and size of the scale values. (True Answer
)Correct
๏ท remember that correlation facilitates prediction. Incorrect
238
Bar graphs allow researchers to
๏ท compare groups. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท generalize from samples. Incorrect
๏ท demonstrate significance. Incorrect
๏ท visualize correlation. Incorrect
๏ท avoid bias. Incorrect
239
In a group of five individuals, two report annual incomes of
$10,000, and the other three report incomes of $14,000, $15,000,
and $31,000, respectively. The mode of this group’s distribution
of annual incomes is
๏ท $10,000. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท $15,000. Incorrect
๏ท $16,000. Incorrect
๏ท $31,000. Incorrect
๏ท $80,000. Incorrect
240
Mr. and Mrs. Klostreich have six children aged 5, 6, 6, 7, 8, and
16. The mean age of the Klostreich children is
๏ท 5. Incorrect
๏ท 6. Incorrect
๏ท
Incorrect
๏ท 7. Incorrect
๏ท 8. (True Answer )Correct
241
During the past year, Zara and Ivan each read 2 books, but
George read 9, Ali read 12, and Marsha read 25. The median
number of books read by these individuals was
๏ท 2. Incorrect
๏ท 50. Incorrect
๏ท 10. Incorrect
๏ท 12. Incorrect
๏ท 9. (True Answer )Correct
242
Six different high school students spent $10, $13, $2, $12, $13,
and $4, respectively, on entertainment. The mode of this
group’s entertainment expenditures is
๏ท $9. Incorrect
๏ท $10. Incorrect
๏ท $11. Incorrect
๏ท $12. Incorrect
๏ท $13. (True Answer )Correct
243
The arithmetic average of a distribution of scores is the
๏ท mode. Incorrect
๏ท median. Incorrect
๏ท standard deviation. Incorrect
๏ท mean. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท range. Incorrect
244
The most commonly reported measure of central tendency is
the
๏ท mode. Incorrect
๏ท mean. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท normal distribution. Incorrect
๏ท median. Incorrect
๏ท standard deviation. Incorrect
245
During the past month, Henri and Sylvia each ate 10 candy
bars, while Jerry ate 8, Tricia ate 6, and Tahli ate only 1. The
mean number of candy bars eaten by these individuals was
๏ท 3. Incorrect
๏ท 5. Incorrect
๏ท 7. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท 8. Incorrect
๏ท 10. Incorrect
246
Mr. and Mrs. Berry have five children aged 2, 3, 7, 9, and 9.
The median age of the Berry children is
๏ท 3. Incorrect
๏ท 6. Incorrect
๏ท 7. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท 8. Incorrect
๏ท 9. Incorrect
247
In a distribution of test scores, which measure of central
tendency would likely be the most affected by a couple of
extremely high scores?
๏ท median Incorrect
๏ท range Incorrect
๏ท mode Incorrect
๏ท standard deviation Incorrect
๏ท mean (True Answer )Correct
248
When Mr. Adams calculated his students’ algebra test scores,
he noticed that two students had extremely low scores. Which
measure of central tendency is affected most by the scores of
these two students?
๏ท mean (True Answer )Correct
๏ท standard deviation Incorrect
๏ท mode Incorrect
๏ท median Incorrect
๏ท range Incorrect
249
Seven members of a boys’ club reported the following
individual earnings from their sale of cookies: $2, $9, $8, $10,
$4, $9, and $7. In this distribution of individual earnings
๏ท the median is greater than the mean and greater than the
mode. Incorrect
๏ท the median is less than the mean and less than the
mode. Incorrect
๏ท the median is greater than the mean and less than the
mode. Incorrect
๏ท the median is less than the mean and greater than the
mode. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท the median is equal to the mean and equal to the
mode. Incorrect
250
Seven members of a Girl Scout troop report the following
individual earnings from their sale of candy: $4, $1, $7, $6, $8,
$2, and $7. In this distribution of individual earnings
๏ท the mean is equal to the mode and equal to the
median. Incorrect
๏ท the mean is less than the mode and equal to the
median. Incorrect
๏ท the mean is equal to the mode and greater than the
median. Incorrect
๏ท the mean is greater than the mode and greater than the
median. Incorrect
๏ท the mean is less than the mode and less than the
median. (True Answer )Correct
251
To understand the British newspaper headline โIncome for
62% Is Below Average,โ it is necessary to appreciate the
distinction between the ________ and the mean.
๏ท range Incorrect
๏ท standard deviation Incorrect
๏ท mode Incorrect
๏ท correlation Incorrect
๏ท median (True Answer )Correct
252
For which of the following distributions of scores would the
median most clearly be a more appropriate measure of central
tendency than the mean?
๏ท 16, 28, 4, 8, 24 Incorrect
๏ท 9, 6, 9, 12, 9 Incorrect
๏ท 8, 9, 12, 10, 16 Incorrect
๏ท 6, 18, 4, 5, 2 (True Answer )Correct
๏ท 3, 4, 3, 4, 2 Incorrect
253
For which of the following distributions of scores would the
median most clearly be a more appropriate measure of central
tendency than the mean?
๏ท 9, 8, 9, 8, 7 Incorrect
๏ท 10, 22, 8, 9, 6 (True Answer )Correct
๏ท 12, 6, 8, 5, 4 Incorrect
๏ท 12, 15, 12, 9, 12 Incorrect
๏ท 23, 7, 3, 27, 16 Incorrect
254
Which measure of central tendency would be most appropriate
in determining housing values in a particular community?
๏ท range Incorrect
๏ท mode Incorrect
๏ท median (True Answer )Correct
๏ท mean Incorrect
๏ท standard deviation Incorrect
255
Why would the median, rather than the mean, be the
appropriate measure of central tendency in determining
housing values in a particular community?
๏ท The median is useful for measuring how much values deviate
from one another. Incorrect
๏ท The median is minimally affected by extreme scores. (True
Answer )Correct
๏ท The median is best used to sort values into groups. Incorrect
๏ท The median allows you to examine the gap between the
lowest and highest value. Incorrect
๏ท The median allows you to generalize from representative
samples to the general population. Incorrect
256
Which measure of central tendency would a baseball manager
be most likely to rely on in picking a pinch hitter in a tie game?
๏ท median Incorrect
๏ท mode Incorrect
๏ท range Incorrect
๏ท mean (True Answer )Correct
๏ท standard deviation Incorrect
257
Variation is to central tendency as ________ is to ________.
๏ท range; median (True Answer )Correct
๏ท median; mean Incorrect
๏ท mode; mean Incorrect
๏ท scatterplot; bar graph Incorrect
๏ท correlation; scatterplot Incorrect
258
The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a
distribution is the
๏ท mean. Incorrect
๏ท range. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท median. Incorrect
๏ท standard deviation. Incorrect
๏ท correlation coefficient. Incorrect
259
The range is
๏ท a total population from which samples may be
drawn. Incorrect
๏ท the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a
distribution. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท the most commonly used measure of variation. Incorrect
๏ท the average deviation of scores from the mean. Incorrect
๏ท the most frequently occurring score in a distribution of
scores. Incorrect
260
The IQ scores of the five members of the Duluth family are 100,
82, 104, 96, and 118. For this distribution of scores, the range is
๏ท 6. Incorrect
๏ท 14. Incorrect
๏ท 36. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท 48. Incorrect
๏ท 100. Incorrect
261
During the last Central High School basketball game, the
starting five players scored 11, 7, 21, 14, and 7 points,
respectively. For this distribution of scores, the range is
๏ท 7. Incorrect
๏ท 11. Incorrect
๏ท 12. Incorrect
๏ท 14. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท 21. Incorrect
262
Which of the following is a measure of the degree of variation
among a set of events?
๏ท mean Incorrect
๏ท scatterplot Incorrect
๏ท standard deviation (True Answer )Correct
๏ท median Incorrect
๏ท correlation coefficient Incorrect
263
Evelyn wants to know how consistent her bowling scores have
been during the past season. Which of the following measures
would be most relevant to this specific concern?
๏ท mean Incorrect
๏ท median Incorrect
๏ท scatterplot Incorrect
๏ท standard deviation (True Answer )Correct
๏ท correlation coefficient Incorrect
264
Professor Woo noticed that the distribution of students’ scores
on her last biology test had an extremely small standard
deviation. This indicates that the
๏ท test was given to a very small class of students. Incorrect
๏ท students’ scores tended to be very similar to one
another. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท mean test score was lower than the median score. Incorrect
๏ท students generally performed very well on the test. Incorrect
๏ท test was a poor measure of the students’
knowledge. Incorrect
265
On a 10-item test, three students in Professor Hsin’s advanced
chemistry seminar received scores of 2, 5, and 8, respectively.
For this distribution of test scores, the standard deviation is
equal to the square root of
๏ท 3. Incorrect
๏ท 4. Incorrect
๏ท 5. Incorrect
๏ท 6. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท 9. Incorrect
266
Which measure of variation is most affected by extreme scores?
๏ท mean Incorrect
๏ท mode Incorrect
๏ท standard deviation Incorrect
๏ท range (True Answer )Correct
๏ท median Incorrect
267
If scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) are
normally distributed, with a mean of 100 and a standard
deviation of 15, what percentage of scores will fall between 85
and 115?
๏ท 34 Incorrect
๏ท 47 Incorrect
๏ท 68 (True Answer )Correct
๏ท 80 Incorrect
๏ท 95 Incorrect
268
The distributions of which of the following types of data are
most likely to form a normal curve?
๏ท scores on a homework assignment Incorrect
๏ท years of historical events Incorrect
๏ท age in a school grade Incorrect
๏ท income Incorrect
๏ท height (True Answer )Correct
269
Coach Vroman attended a clinic to improve his basketball
coaching skills. Afterward, he randomly assigned his seventhgrade players to two groups: Group 1 will be coached by the
new method and Group 2 will be coached by his old method. He
then measured their performance at one team practice to judge
the effectiveness of the new coaching method. Which of the
following might affect the statistical significance of his study?
๏ท Approval from an Institutional Review Board (IRB) was not
obtained before beginning his study. Incorrect
๏ท To determine the effectiveness of the new method, Coach
Vroman must first find the median score of each
group. Incorrect
๏ท By testing only two groups, Coach Vroman’s sample size may
be too small and unrepresentative. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท Coach Vroman should wait until next year to test the
incoming freshman because his sample was biased. Incorrect
๏ท A third variable, such as height, might affect the relationship
between the two variables. Incorrect
270
Dr. DeVries is interested in measuring how practice in problem
solving affects this ability. The population of interest is high
school seniors, and the sample consists of students who attend
an exclusive college preparatory school. Half of the sample
receives practice in solving particular types of problems, while
the other half does not. Both groups take the same problemsolving test. Which of the following might best explain why Dr.
DeVries may not be able to generalize his findings?
๏ท He is not taking into account how the scores on the test might
deviate from one another. Incorrect
๏ท His data may be positively skewed. Incorrect
๏ท He should have conducted his experiment in a lab instead of
a natural setting. Incorrect
๏ท His sample is not representative of the population. (True
Answer )Correct
๏ท He did not receive approval from an Institutional Review
Board (IRB) before beginning his research. Incorrect
271
Why are researchers careful to use large, representative
samples in their studies?
๏ท The general public perceives these kinds of samples to be
more scientific. Incorrect
๏ท Policymakers demand larger, more representative sample
sizes for political reasons. Incorrect
๏ท Statistical methods only work for larger sample
sizes. Incorrect
๏ท It is more profitable to work with larger samples. Incorrect
๏ท Larger, representative sample sizes help ensure reliable and
valid results. (True Answer )Correct
272
To determine whether a research finding is statistically
significant, researchers
๏ท compare the means of the control group and experimental
group. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท survey other researchers to ensure the hypothesis is
significant. Incorrect
๏ท perform detailed case studies to validate findings. Incorrect
๏ท confirm correlational evidence with empirical
findings. Incorrect
๏ท convert positive correlations to negative ones. Incorrect
273
Which makes finding statistical significance more likely?
๏ท random sampling Incorrect
๏ท skewed distributions Incorrect
๏ท small sample size Incorrect
๏ท large sample size (True Answer )Correct
๏ท operational definitions Incorrect
274
Why are researchers so careful about drawing conclusions
regarding statistical significance?
๏ท Statistical significance determines which research method
should be used for a hypothesis. Incorrect
๏ท They want to make sure an observed difference isn’t due to
chance. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท Statistical significance is primarily a subjective decision, so
researchers need to be more careful. Incorrect
๏ท They need to make sure the results are important. Incorrect
๏ท Statistical significance is used in case studies, not
experiments, so researchers do not have a control group to rely
on. Incorrect
275
What does the effect size of research findings tell you that
statistical significance does not?
๏ท whether or not the result is due to random factors or the
experimental treatment Incorrect
๏ท if the independent variable had an impact on the dependent
variable Incorrect
๏ท if the confounding variables influenced the result of the
study Incorrect
๏ท the magnitude of the finding (True Answer )Correct
๏ท validity of the results Incorrect
276
When the observed difference between the means of an
experimental group and control group are not likely due to
chance, researchers conclude that this difference is
๏ท positively correlated. Incorrect
๏ท highly variable. Incorrect
๏ท reliable. Incorrect
๏ท statistically significant. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท experimentally empirical. Incorrect
277
If a result is statistically significant, this means that the
๏ท results of the test are positively correlated with another
factor. Incorrect
๏ท participants received scores above the 50
percentile. Incorrect
๏ท results of the research have practical significance. Incorrect
๏ท scores were 1 standard deviation from the mean. Incorrect
๏ท psychologist accepts a 5 percent likelihood that the results
occurred by chance. (True Answer )Correct
278
A soft drink company recently invested in a new advertising
campaign to increase sales. Which of the following would allow
executives to best judge the results of their latest commercials?
๏ท compute the range based on the highest monthly sales this
year with the lowest sales of last year Incorrect
๏ท compare the mean sales of soft drinks with that of their
major competitor Incorrect
๏ท compute the mode to determine which soft drinks have the
highest sales Incorrect
๏ท compare the means of sales before and after the beginning of
the new campaign to determine statistical significance (True
Answer )Correct
๏ท compute the median of sales for each of their product lines,
then compare Incorrect
279
What do researchers call a difference between the means of
experimental and control groups when they know the averages
are reliable and the difference between the groups is unlikely
due to random chance or extraneous variables?
๏ท operationally defined Incorrect
๏ท statistically significant (True Answer )Correct
๏ท normal curve Incorrect
๏ท standard deviation Incorrect
๏ท experimental group Incorrect
280
In 1963, Stanley Milgram reported that 65% of research
participants, at the request of the experimenter, would
administer phony shocks that they considered real, to a
stranger. He demonstrated how obedient humans can be to
authority figures. Some critics contend that Milgram’s findings
cannot be used to predict behavior in real life. How might
Milgram respond to this criticism?
๏ท โLaboratory research is like ‘real life’ so results can be used
to predict such behavior.โ Incorrect
๏ท โIt’s impossible to study obedience in the ‘real world’ so
laboratory research is the only option.โ Incorrect
๏ท โLaboratory research allows you to identify general
principles that do generalize to other ‘real world’
contexts.โ (True Answer )Correct
๏ท โAll valuable psychological research is conducted in the
lab.โ Incorrect
๏ท โThe situation was not artificial, but justifiable in
demonstrating the impact of the situation on human
behavior.โ Incorrect
281
Which of the following are considered to be limitations of
psychological experiments conducted in laboratory
environments?
๏ท Laboratory experiments allow researchers to have control
over variables. Incorrect
๏ท Experiments conducted in laboratories allow researchers to
make causal inferences. Incorrect
๏ท It’s difficult to accurately measure the research
variables. Incorrect
๏ท Laboratories are artificial environments, so behavior might
not apply to the real world. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท Researchers tend to ignore ethical considerations in the
pursuit of proving their hypotheses. Incorrect
282
How would a researcher likely respond to the statement,
โScience can’t really prove anything, because lab experiments
are so artificial and not like the real worldโ?
๏ท โThat’s not true. Lab experiments are usually very
realistic.โ Incorrect
๏ท โMost experiments aren’t done in the laboratory.โ Incorrect
๏ท โThe goal of science is to establish hypotheses, not prove
things.โ Incorrect
๏ท โLaboratory experiments can establish general principles
that generalize to other contexts.โ (True Answer )Correct
๏ท โWhen operational definitions are inadequate, laboratory
experiments are the only choice.โ Incorrect
283
Which of the following generalizations about culture and
gender is most correct?
๏ท Even when specific attitudes and behaviors vary by gender or
across cultures, underlying principles are often very
similar. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท Culture is such a powerful influence on behavior,
psychologists do not generalize principles across different
cultures. Incorrect
๏ท Many psychological theories apply to people from different
cultures, but theories are interpreted differently for each
gender. Incorrect
๏ท Culture and gender are influences on some personality
variables, but not general psychological theories or
behaviors. Incorrect
๏ท Culture and gender are biological variables, which should
not impact behaviors. Incorrect
284
Slender women are considered especially beautiful in one
country; in another country, stout women are seen as
particularly attractive. In both countries, however, women
perceived as very beautiful receive preferential treatment. This
best illustrates that ________ often underlie cultural
differences.
๏ท negative correlations Incorrect
๏ท common psychological processes (True Answer )Correct
๏ท gender differences Incorrect
๏ท unconscious preferences Incorrect
๏ท genetic dissimilarities Incorrect
285
The enduring traditions, attitudes, and behaviors shared by a
large group of people constitutes their
๏ท culture. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท normal curve. Incorrect
๏ท wording effects. Incorrect
๏ท statistical significance. Incorrect
๏ท operational definition. Incorrect
286
American males shake hands in greeting; Japanese men bow.
However, people can communicate with a smile. What does this
tell us about the role of culture in understanding our
psychology?
๏ท Culture shapes our behavior, but certain underlying
processes guide people everywhere. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท Psychologists cannot generalize theories to different cultures
because culture is such a powerful influence on
behavior. Incorrect
๏ท Culture is a biological force that does not affect overt social
behaviors. Incorrect
๏ท Biological differences divide the human family and our
behaviors. Incorrect
๏ท An awareness of cultural differences is unimportant to the
study of behavior and mental processes. Incorrect
287
Researchers have found that men and women learn to walk at
about the same age, experience the same sensations of light, and
exhibit similar overall intelligence. These findings support the
idea that
๏ท the same underlying processes guide people
everywhere. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท psychology is based on intuition and common
sense. Incorrect
๏ท hindsight bias is inevitable. Incorrect
๏ท correlation does not mean causation. Incorrect
๏ท women and men are overwhelmingly different. Incorrect
288
Professional psychological associations require researchers to
๏ท study animals only in their natural environment. Incorrect
๏ท obtain informed consent before using any animals as subjects
in research. Incorrect
๏ท justify the use of animals in research before an Institutional
Review Board (IRB). Incorrect
๏ท minimize infection, illness, and pain in animal
subjects. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท protect only cats, dogs, and primates, not mice or rats, from
unnecessary pain. Incorrect
289
In 1920, behaviorist John B. Watson conditioned an 8-monthold infant, Albert. He was turned over to Dr. Watson without
permission. This violates which ethical principle developed by
the American Psychological Association?
๏ท coercion Incorrect
๏ท confidentiality Incorrect
๏ท debriefing Incorrect
๏ท informed consent (True Answer )Correct
๏ท protection from harm Incorrect
290
A researcher who deceives participants about the goals of the
research needs to fully inform them of the true nature of the
study later, according to which ethical principle of human
experimentation?
๏ท informed consent Incorrect
๏ท protection from harm Incorrect
๏ท confidentiality Incorrect
๏ท debriefing (True Answer )Correct
๏ท coercion Incorrect
291
The American Psychological Association and British
Psychological Society have developed ethical principles urging
investigators to
๏ท avoid the use of monetary incentives in recruiting people to
participate in research. Incorrect
๏ท forewarn potential research participants of the exact
hypotheses that the research will test. Incorrect
๏ท avoid the manipulation of independent variables in research
involving human participants. Incorrect
๏ท explain the research to the participants after the study has
been completed. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท increase the difficulty level of research endeavors while
maintaining validity. Incorrect
292
Which of the following defines ethical principles that should
guide human experimentation?
๏ท control group, random sampling, random
assignment Incorrect
๏ท case study, naturalistic observation, survey Incorrect
๏ท informed consent, protection from harm, confidentiality,
debriefing (True Answer )Correct
๏ท volunteer participants only, no deception, incentives for
participation Incorrect
๏ท effect size, statistical significance, measures of central
tendency, variation Incorrect
293
A researcher who gathers and analyzes data from student essay
test responses without talking with the students about the study
violates which ethical principle of human experimentation?
๏ท informed consent (True Answer )Correct
๏ท protection from harm Incorrect
๏ท confidentiality Incorrect
๏ท debriefing Incorrect
๏ท coercion Incorrect
294
A researcher who publishes the results of a case study might be
most worried about violating which ethical principle of human
experimentation?
๏ท informed consent Incorrect
๏ท protection from harm Incorrect
๏ท confidentiality (True Answer )Correct
๏ท debriefing Incorrect
๏ท coercion Incorrect
295
In 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that schools must be
desegregated, meaning Black and White children must attend
the same schools instead of being separated. In its decision, the
Court cited the expert testimony of two psychologists,
illustrating the negative impact of such separation on Black
children. This example illustrates that psychology
๏ท is nothing more than common sense and intuition. Incorrect
๏ท can be used to manipulate people. Incorrect
๏ท tries to decide what our goals should be. Incorrect
๏ท can help people understand some of our world’s great
problems. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท is becoming dangerously powerful. Incorrect
296
Stanley Milgram designed his influential studies on obedience
in response to thinking about the Holocaust. In their defense,
Nazi war criminals said they had committed such atrocities
against the Jews and others because they were โjust following
orders.โ Milgram’s motivation to study obedience to authority
illustrates that
๏ท human behavior can be tested by means of
experimentation. Incorrect
๏ท psychology is based on common sense and
intuition. Incorrect
๏ท psychology is not value free; it affects what psychologists
study. (True Answer )Correct
๏ท psychologists must be aware of ethical concerns when using
human participants in experiments. Incorrect
๏ท the personal bias of researchers make their findings
suspect. Incorrect
297
Psychologists’ personal values and goals
๏ท are carefully tested by means of observation and
experimentation. Incorrect
๏ท lead them to avoid experiments involving human
participants. Incorrect
๏ท can bias their observations and interpretations. (True
Answer )Correct
๏ท have very little influence on the process of scientific
observation. Incorrect
๏ท affect their work only if they are different from the
norm. Incorrect
298
When your best friend hears that you are taking a psychology
course, she asserts that psychology is simply common sense.
Explain why your awareness of both the limits of everyday
reasoning and the methods of psychological research would
lead you to disagree with your friend’s assertion.
๏ท
Student responses should refer to a specific limit of everyday
reasoning, such as hindsight bias or overconfidence and at least
one of the methods of psychological research, referring
specifically to why psychologists gather data through research
methods in order to reach empirical decisions.
299
The table below lists the scores of eight research participants on
a test to measure anxiety, as well as the typical number of
cigarettes each person smokes daily. Scores on the anxiety test
can range anywhere from a low of 0 (indicating very low
anxiety) to a high of 30 (indicating very high anxiety).
๏ฟฝ ๏ฟฝAnxiety Cigarettes
๏ฟฝ ๏ฟฝ Research
๏ฟฝ ๏ฟฝ Participant Test Score
๏ฟฝ
๏ฟฝ ????????????????????????????
1
8
11
๏ฟฝ
2
9
3
๏ฟฝ
3
15
11
๏ฟฝ
4
14
16
๏ฟฝ
๏ฟฝ
๏ฟฝ
๏ฟฝ
๏ฟฝ
5
6
7
8
21
12
22
17
26
10
24
18
Construct a scatterplot to represent the correlation between
smoking and anxiety. Describe the direction of the correlation
and give two possible explanations for it.
๏ท
Students should construct an accurate scatterplot and explain
that the data indicate an overall positive correlation. Students
should also provide at least two possible explanations for this
positive correlation. These explanations can imply a causal
relationship, but students should demonstrate some
understanding that this positive correlation does not prove a
causal relationship.
300
Speaking at a college graduation ceremony, Professor Robson
compared college graduates with adults who are less educated.
She correctly noted that college graduates pay more taxes, vote
more frequently, engage in more volunteer activities in their
communities, and are less likely to go to jail than less-educated
adults. The professor concluded that colleges obviously do great
things for society. How might you reasonably challenge the way
the professor reached her conclusion?
๏ท
Students should point out that Professor Robson is inferring a
causal relationship based on correlational data, and that a
correlational study cannot prove a causal relationship. In
addition, students may point out that some of the relationships
Professor Robson highlights may be illusory correlations.
301
Design an experiment to test whether alcohol consumption
influences people’s tendency to become socially aggressive. In
your experimental design, identify the following experimental
elements and procedures: hypothesis, random sampling,
random assignment, experimental group, control group,
independent variable, dependent variable, ethics in research.
๏ท
Students should design an experiment in which the hypothesis
identifies alcohol as the independent variable and social
aggression as the dependent variable. Students should also
distinguish the experimental group (the group that consumes
alcohol) from the control group (the group that does not
consume alcohol and/or consumes a placebo). Finally, students
should include at least one detail about complying with ethical
guidelines from the research with human participants.
302
Five students received the following test scores: 7, 11, 5, 6, and
11. Calculate the mode, median, mean, and range of this
distribution of scores. Which measure of central tendency
would change the most if an additional test score of 2 was
included in the distribution?
๏ท
Students should calculate the modal score as 11, the median as
7, the mean as 8, and the range as 5โ11. They should conclude
that the mean would be most affected by the inclusion of the
additional test score of 2 (it would reduce the mean of the
distribution).
303
A researcher wants to investigate people’s attitudes toward
violence on television. Explain which of the following research
methods the researcher should use and why: case study, survey,
or naturalistic observation.
๏ท
Students should explain that this research question is best
investigated with the survey because it is the only method in
this list that can gather information about a sample of attitudes
toward violence on television. A case study could only gather
data about one person’s attitude, and a naturalistic observation
study couldn’t gather data about attitudes.
304
A researcher gathered evidence about the number of times
different age students consult the internet to check facts for
research reports. Participants between 10 and 15 years old
consulted the internet an average of 10.1 times during the
research report, and participants between 15 and 25 years old
averaged 7.3 times. Explain what โstatistical significanceโ
would mean in the context of this study.
๏ท
Students should explain that if the difference between the
means of these two groups are statistically significant, then the
difference between the groups is not likely due to chance, and
the researcher could safely conclude that age impacts internet
use in this context.
305
Professor Hahn received a grant to study the relationship
between childhood obesity and video game playing. Answer the
following questions about Professor Hahn’s research study:
A. Explain how Professor Hahn could use each of the following
research methods to study this topic:
โข Case study
โข Survey
โข Naturalistic observation
B. Design an experiment Professor Hahn could use to
investigate this topic, including the following terms in the
context of your design.
โข Operational definition
โข Independent and dependent variable
โข Random assignment
C. Explain how Professor Hahn’s experimental design would
conform to ethical guidelines.
D. Explain how Professor Hahn would use statistics (including
at least one measure of central tendency and inferential
statistics) to examine the data from the study to reach a
conclusion.
๏ท
Point 1: Case Study: Students should note that Professor Hahn
should choose one child and gather detailed information about
that child’s video game habits and health (such as eating habits,
weight, and other related factors).
Point 2: Survey: Students should note that Professor Hahn
should gather data from a large sample of children
representing his population of children through a survey
measuring both video game playing and obesity.
Point 3: Naturalistic observation: Students should note that
Professor Hahn should gather data about children’s video
game habits and health by observing behaviors in a public
setting.
Point 4: Operational definition: Students should provide at
least one correct operational definition for video game playing
(such as timing how long children play video games) and
obesity (such as calculating body mass index).
Point 5: Independent and dependent variables: Students should
identify video game playing as the independent variable and
obesity as the dependent variable in the experimental design.
Point 6: Random assignment: Students should explain how
participants could be randomly assigned to either the
experimental condition or the control condition (the conditions
should differ based on the independent variable: video game
playing).
Point 7: Ethical guidelines: Students’ experimental design
should conform to ethical guidelines for human participants,
including accurate descriptions of how the experiment includes
informed consent, protection from harm, confidentiality, and
debriefing.
Point 8: Use of Statistics: Students’ explanation of how
Professor Hahn would use statistics to examine results of the
experimental design they described should include at least one
measure of central tendency (mean, median, or mode) and the
idea that inferential statistics would be used to determine if the
difference between the experimental group and the control
group is statistically significant.

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