# Test Bank For Managerial Economics: Theory, Applications, and Cases, 8th Edition

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Chapter 2: Demand Theory
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. The market demand schedule shows the quantities that would be purchased, holding all other factors
constant, from a group of firms during a given time period:
a. at varying prices.
b. at varying advertising levels.
c. at varying competitorsโ prices and advertising levels.
d. at varying prices and advertising levels.
e. over different time intervals.
ANS: A
MSC: Factual
DIF: Easy
REF: 29
TOP: Demand Theory
2. Information on the quantities that would be purchased at different prices, holding all other factors
constant, in a given time period from a group of firms is shown in a:
a. firm demand curve.
b. market demand curve.
c. firm demand schedule.
d. market supply schedule.
e. firm supply curve.
ANS: B
MSC: Factual
DIF: Easy
REF: 29
TOP: Demand Theory
3. A graphical representation of the demand function is called a:
a. demand schedule.
b. demand curve.
c. demand function.
d. marginal revenue schedule.
e. marginal revenue curve.
ANS: B
MSC: Factual
DIF: Easy
REF: 29
TOP: Demand Theory
4. The demand curveโs usual slope implies that consumers:
a. buy more as the price of a good is increased.
b. buy more as a good is advertised more.
c. buy more at higher average incomes.
d. buy less as the price of a good is increased.
e. have tastes that sometimes change.
ANS: D
MSC: Factual
DIF: Easy
REF: 29
5. A market demand curve is likely to shift to the right when:
a. average income falls.
b. prices fall.
c. prices rise.
d. population increases.
e. new firms enter the market.
TOP: Demand Theory
ANS: D
MSC: Factual
DIF: Easy
REF: 31
TOP: Demand Theory
6. A firmโs demand curve is usually:
a. to the right of the market demand curve.
b. more inelastic than the market demand curve.
c. the same as the market demand curve.
d. drawn holding supply constant.
e. more elastic than the market demand curve.
ANS: E
MSC: Conceptual
DIF: Moderate
REF: 33
TOP: Demand Theory
7. The price elasticity of demand can be interpreted as the:
a. percentage change in the quantity demanded divided by the percentage change in the
goodโs price.
b. percentage change in the quantity demanded divided by the percentage change in a
substitute goodโs price.
c. percentage change in the goodโs price divided by the percentage change in quantity
demanded.
d. change in the quantity demanded of a good divided by the change in its price.
e. change in the quantity demanded of a good divided by the change in a related goodโs
price.
ANS: A
DIF: Easy
REF: 36
TOP: Calculate the Price Elasticity of Demand
MSC: Factual
8. In the article โColombia, Brazil Advance Proposal to Withhold 10 Percent of Export Outputโ (The
Wall Street Journal, September 23, 1991, p. B6), a Colombian delegate to the International Coffee
Organization said that if all its members withheld 10% of export output, the international price would
rise 20%. This statement implies that the price elasticity of demand for coffee is approximately:
a. โ0.00.
b. โ5.00.
c. โ2.00.
d. โ0.20.
e. โ0.50.
ANS: E
DIF: Moderate
REF: 36
TOP: Calculate the Price Elasticity of Demand
MSC: Applied
9. If the elasticity of per capita demand with respect to population is zero, then a 10% increase in the
population will cause the quantity demanded to:
a. increase by 25%.
b. decrease by 10%.
c. remain constant.
d. increase by 10%.
e. decrease by 25%.
ANS: C
DIF: Easy
REF: 36
TOP: The Own-Price Elasticity of Demand
MSC:
10. As we move down a linear demand curve, demand becomes:
Applied
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
more elastic.
less elastic at first and then more elastic.
steeper.
more elastic at first and then less elastic.
less elastic.
ANS: E
DIF: Easy
REF: 37
TOP: Calculate the Price Elasticity of Demand
MSC: Factual
11. The formula for the arc price elasticity can be written (where ๏Q denotes the change in Q) as:
a. ๏จ = [๏Q /(Q1 + Q2)]/[๏P/(P1 + P2)].
b. ๏จ = [๏Q /(Q1 + Q2)]/[๏P/(Q1 + Q2)].
c. ๏จ = [๏Q /(P1 + P2)]/[๏P/(Q1 + Q2)].
d. ๏จ = [๏P /(P1 + P2)]/[๏Q/(Q1 + Q2)].
e. none of the above.
ANS: A
DIF: Easy
REF: 39
TOP: Calculate the Price Elasticity of Demand
MSC: Factual
12. The formula for the point price elasticity can be written as:
a. ๏จ = (๏Q / ๏P)(P / Q).
b. ๏จ = (๏P / ๏Q)(P / Q).
c. ๏จ = (๏Q / ๏P)(Q / P).
d. ๏จ = (๏P / ๏Q)(Q / P).
e. none of the above.
ANS: A
DIF: Easy
REF: 39
TOP: Calculate the Price Elasticity of Demand
MSC: Factual
13. The formula for the arc elasticity of demand can be written as:
a. ๏จXY = [๏QX /(Q1X + Q2X)]/[๏PX/(P1X + P2X)].
b. ๏จXY = [๏QX /(Q1Y + Q2Y)]/[๏PY/(P1X + P2X)].
c. ๏จXY = [๏QX /(Q1X + Q2X)]/[๏PY/(P1Y + P2Y)].
d. ๏จXY = [๏PX /(P1X + P2X)]/[๏QY/(Q1Y + Q2Y)].
e. none of the above.
ANS: C
DIF: Easy
REF: 39
TOP: Calculate the Price Elasticity of Demand
MSC: Factual
14. The demand for office chairs in thousands is Q = 80 โ P2. At a price of $4, the price elasticity of
demand is:
a. โ0.5.
b. โ8.0.
c. โ2.0.
d. โ4.0.
e. โ0.25.
ANS: A
DIF: Easy
REF: 40
TOP: Calculate the Price Elasticity of Demand
MSC: Applied
15. The demand for cough medicine is Q = 10 โ 2P. At a price of $2.50, the price elasticity of demand is:
a. โ2.0.
b.
c.
d.
e.
โ1.0.
โ2.5.
โ0.4.
โ1.5.
ANS: B
DIF: Easy
REF: 40
TOP: Calculate the Price Elasticity of Demand
MSC: Applied
16. The demand for answering machines is Q = 1,000 โ 150P + 25I. Assume that per capita disposable
income I is $200. When the price of answering machines is P = $10, the price elasticity of demand is:
a. โ3.0.
b. โ3.33.
c. โ1.33.
d. โ0.33.
e. โ1.0.
ANS: D
DIF: Easy
REF: 40
TOP: Calculate the Price Elasticity of Demand
MSC: Applied
17. The demand for personal computers has been estimated to be Q = 500,000 โ 700P + 200I โ 500S.
Assume that per capita income I is $13,000 and the average price of software S is $400. When the
price of personal computers is P = $3,000, the price elasticity of demand is:
a. โ2.625.
b. โ7.0.
c. โ1.0.
d. โ21.0.
e. โ4.25.
ANS: A
DIF: Moderate
REF: 40
TOP: Calculate the Price Elasticity of Demand
MSC: Applied
18. A manufacturer of infant clothes has found that the demand for its product is given by
Q = 100P ยฑ 1.25A0.5, where P is price and A is advertising expenditures. The price elasticity of demand
for these infant clothes is:
a. โ0.8.
b. โ1.25.
c. โ1.0.
d. โ2.5.
e. โ0.5.
ANS: B
DIF: Moderate
REF: 40
TOP: Calculate the Price Elasticity of Demand
MSC: Applied
19. The demand for textbooks is Q = 200 โ P + 25U โ 50Pbeer. Assume that the unemployment rate U is 8
and the price of beer Pbeer is $2. When the average price of a textbook is P = $100, the price elasticity
of demand is:
a. โ1.0.
b. โ2.0.
c. โ0.5.
d. โ50.
e. โ5.0.
ANS: C
DIF: Moderate
REF: 40
TOP: Calculate the Price Elasticity of Demand
MSC: Applied
20. Suppose that the demand curve for compact disks is given by P = 600 โ Q and that the supply curve is
given by P = 0.5Q, where Q is the quantity of compact disks and P is their price. What is the price
elasticity of demand at the equilibrium price and quantity?
a. โ0.05.
b. โ0.02.
c. โ0.20.
d. โ0.50.
e. โ2.00.
ANS: D
DIF: Moderate
REF: 40
TOP: Calculate the Price Elasticity of Demand
MSC: Applied
21. The demand for fashion watches is Q = 9 โ 0.7P + 2I. Assume that per capita income I is $13. When
the price of fashion watches is P = $30, the price elasticity of demand is:
a. โ0.66.
b. โ1.0.
c. โ2.0.
d. โ0.5.
e. โ1.5.
ANS: E
DIF: Moderate
REF: 40
TOP: Calculate the Price Elasticity of Demand
MSC: Applied
22. The demand for fax machines in thousands of units has been estimated to be Q = 1,000 โ 1.5P + 5L,
where P is the price of the machines and L is the average cost of a 10-minute midday call from Los
Angeles to New York. At a fax machine price of $400 and a phone call cost of $10, the price elasticity
of demand for fax machines is:
a. โ4.0.
b. โ2.50.
c. โ0.61.
d. โ0.25.
e. โ1.33.
ANS: E
DIF: Moderate
REF: 40
TOP: Calculate the Price Elasticity of Demand
MSC: Applied
23. The demand for space heaters is Q = 250 โ P + 2COOL, where COOL is the absolute value of the
difference between the average overnight low temperature and 40ยฐF. Assume that the average
overnight low is 0ยฐF. When the price of space heaters is P = $30, the price elasticity of demand is:
a. โ0.1.
b. โ1.0.
c. โ0.66.
d. โ1.5.
e. โ6.6.
ANS: A
DIF: Difficult
REF: 40
TOP: Calculate the Price Elasticity of Demand
MSC: Applied
24. The demand for space heaters is Q = 250 โ P + 2COOL, where COOL is the absolute value of the
difference between the average overnight low temperature and 40ยฐF. Assume that the average
overnight low this month is 40ยฐF. When the price of space heaters is P = $50, the price elasticity of
demand is:
a. โ1.38.
b. โ13.8.
c. โ0.138.
d. โ1.50.
e. โ0.25.
ANS: E
DIF: Difficult
REF: 40
TOP: Calculate the Price Elasticity of Demand
MSC: Applied
25. The price elasticity of market demand primarily depends on the:
a. number of firms in an industry.
b. cost of producing an industryโs output.
c. availability of substitutes.
d. substitutability of inputs in producing a product.
e. supply curves of inputs.
ANS: C
DIF: Moderate
REF: 44
TOP: Calculate the Price Elasticity of Demand
MSC: Factual
26. El Niรฑo wind patterns affected the weather across the United States during the winter of 1997โ1998.
Suppose the demand for home heating oil in Connecticut is given by Q = 20 โ 2Phho + 0.5Png โ TEMP,
where Q is the quantity of home heating oil demanded, Phho is the price of home heating oil per unit,
Png is the price of natural gas per unit, and TEMP is the absolute difference between the average winter
temperature over the past 10 years and the current average winter temperature. If the current price of
home heating oil is $1.20, the current price of natural gas is $2.00, and the average winter temperature
this year is 40 degrees compared to 28 degrees over the past 10 years, the quantity of home heating oil
demanded is:
a. 6.6 gallons.
b. 16.6 gallons.
c. 35.4 gallons.
d. 20 gallons.
e. none of the above.
ANS: A
DIF: Difficult
REF: 44
TOP: Calculate the Price Elasticity of Demand
MSC: Applied
27. El Niรฑo wind patterns affected the weather across the United States during the winter of 1997โ1998.
Suppose the demand for home heating oil in Connecticut is given by Q = 20 โ 2Phho + 0.5Png โ TEMP,
where Q is the quantity of home heating oil demanded, Phho is the price of home heating oil per unit,
Png is the price of natural gas per unit, and TEMP is the absolute difference between the average winter
temperature over the past 10 years and the current average winter temperature. If the current price of
home heating oil is $1.20, the current price of natural gas is $2.00, and the average winter temperature
this year is 40 degrees compared to 28 degrees over the past 10 years, the TEMP variable tells us that:
a. each 1-degree increase in temperature over the normal average raises home heating oil
sales by 1 unit.
b. each 1-degree increase in temperature over the normal average lowers home heating oil
sales by 1 unit.
c. the average daily temperature has no impact on the sales of home heating oil.
d. the average daily temperature has an impact only on the sales of natural gas.
e. price elasticity of demand for home heating oil is 2.
ANS: B
DIF: Difficult
REF: 44
TOP: Calculate the Price Elasticity of Demand
MSC: Applied
28. El Niรฑo wind patterns affected the weather across the United States during the winter of 1997โ1998.
Suppose the demand for home heating oil in Connecticut is given by Q = 20 โ 2Phho + 0.5Png โ TEMP,
where Q is the quantity of home heating oil demanded, Phho is the price of home heating oil per unit,
Png is the price of natural gas per unit, and TEMP is the absolute difference between the average winter
temperature over the past 10 years and the current average winter temperature. If the current price of
home heating oil is $1.20, the current price of natural gas is $2.00, and the average winter temperature
this year is 40 degrees compared to 28 degrees over the past 10 years, the price elasticity of demand
for home heating oil is:
a. โ0.09.
b. โ0.36.
c. โ1.2.
d. โ2.
e. none of the above.
ANS: B
DIF: Difficult
REF: 44
TOP: Calculate the Price Elasticity of Demand
MSC: Applied
29. El Niรฑo wind patterns affected the weather across the United States during the winter of 1997โ1998.
Suppose the demand for home heating oil in Connecticut is given by Q = 20 โ 2Phho + 0.5Png โ TEMP,
where Q is the quantity of home heating oil demanded, Phho is the price of home heating oil per unit,
Png is the price of natural gas per unit, and TEMP is the absolute difference between the average winter
temperature over the past 10 years and the current average winter temperature. If the current price of
home heating oil is $1.20, the current price of natural gas is $2.00, and the average winter temperature
this year is 40 degrees compared to 28 degrees over the past 10 years, if the sellers of home heating oil
are profit maximizers, they should:
a. lower prices.
b. raise prices.
c. advertise more.
d. advertise less.
e. none of the above
ANS: B
DIF: Difficult
REF: 44
TOP: Calculate the Price Elasticity of Demand
MSC: Conceptual
30. The demand for a product is more elastic the:
a. more broadly the product is defined.
b. longer the time period covered.
c. higher the average income of consumers.
d. smaller the share of a consumerโs income the item represents.
e. larger the number of firms in the market.
ANS: B
DIF: Easy
REF: 45
TOP: Calculate the Price Elasticity of Demand
31. The demand for a product is more inelastic:
a. the more narrowly defined the product.
b. the longer the time period covered.
c. the lower the average income of consumers.
MSC: Factual
d. the better the available substitutes.
e. the poorer the available substitutes.
ANS: E
DIF: Easy
REF: 45
TOP: Calculate the Price Elasticity of Demand
MSC: Factual
32. The demand for costume jewelry has been estimated to be Q = 100P โ2E2, where E is the price of real
gem jewelry. Costume jewelry and real gem jewelry are:
a. substitute goods.
b. complement goods.
c. inferior goods.
d. normal goods.
e. unrelated goods.
ANS: A
DIF: Moderate
REF: 45
TOP: Calculate the Price Elasticity of Demand
MSC: Applied
33. Marginal revenue can be defined as the:
a. percent increase in total revenue resulting from a 1% increase in output.
b. increase in total revenue resulting from a 1-unit increase in output.
c. total revenue divided by output.
d. average revenue multiplied by output.
e. average revenue multiplied by output divided by 4.
ANS: B
DIF: Easy
REF: 48
TOP: Total Revenue, Marginal Revenue, and Price Elasticity
MSC: Factual
34. Total revenue can be defined as:
a. average revenue multiplied by marginal revenue.
b. average revenue divided by marginal revenue.
c. average revenue multiplied by output.
d. average revenue divided by output.
e. marginal revenue divided by output.
ANS: C
DIF: Easy
REF: 48
TOP: Total Revenue, Marginal Revenue, and Price Elasticity
MSC: Factual
35. Marginal revenue can be defined in terms of price (P) and elasticity (รง) as:
a. MR = P(๏จ + 1/๏จ).
b. P = MR(1/๏จ).
c. MR = P๏จ.
d. MR = P(1 + 1/๏จ).
e. P = MR(1 โ 1/๏จ).
ANS: D
DIF: Easy
REF: 48
TOP: Total Revenue, Marginal Revenue, and Price Elasticity
MSC: Factual
36. If price is $25 when the price elasticity of demand is โ0.5, then marginal revenue must be:
a. $50.
b. โ$25.
c. $12.50.
d. $37.50.
e. $25.
ANS: B
DIF: Easy
REF: 48
TOP: Total Revenue, Marginal Revenue, and Price Elasticity
MSC: Applied
37. If price is $12 when the price elasticity of demand is โ1, then marginal revenue must be:
a. $24.
b. $18.
c. $12.
d. $6.
e. $0.
ANS: E
DIF: Easy
REF: 48
TOP: Total Revenue, Marginal Revenue, and Price Elasticity
MSC: Applied
38. Total revenue decreases as output increases whenever:
a. marginal revenue is less than average revenue.
b. marginal revenue is greater than average revenue.
c. average revenue is decreasing.
d. marginal revenue is negative.
e. average revenue is negative.
ANS: D
DIF: Easy
REF: 51
TOP: Total Revenue, Marginal Revenue, and Price Elasticity
MSC: Conceptual
39. Total revenue is rising with increases in output whenever:
a. output increases.
b. marginal revenue is positive.
c. average revenue is positive.
d. demand is inelastic.
e. average revenue is negative.
ANS: B
DIF: Moderate
REF: 51
TOP: Total Revenue, Marginal Revenue, and Price Elasticity
MSC: Conceptual
40. Along a demand curve with unitary elasticity everywhere, total revenue:
a. increases as output increases.
b. decreases as output increases.
c. remains constant as output increases.
d. increases and then decreases as output increases.
e. decreases and then increases as output increases.
ANS: C
DIF: Easy
REF: 52
TOP: Total Revenue, Marginal Revenue, and Price Elasticity
MSC: Conceptual
41. Along a linear demand curve, total revenue is maximized:
a. where the slope of a line from the origin to the demand curve is equal to the elasticity.
b. where the elasticity is โ1.
c. near the quantity axis intercept.
d. near the price axis intercept.
e. where the elasticity is 0.
ANS: B
DIF: Moderate
REF: 52
TOP: Total Revenue, Marginal Revenue, and Price Elasticity
MSC: Factual
42. The formula for the income elasticity of demand can be written as:
a. ๏จI = (๏Q / ๏I)(I / Q).
b. ๏จI = (๏I / ๏Q)(I / Q).
c. ๏จI = (๏Q / ๏I)(Q / I).
d. ๏จI = (๏I / ๏Q)(Q / I).
e. none of the above.
ANS: A
DIF: Easy
TOP: The Income Elasticity of Demand
REF: 53
MSC: Factual
43. The income elasticity of demand is defined as the:
a. percentage change in the quantity demanded divided by the percentage change in the price
level.
b. change in the quantity demanded divided by the change in per capita income.
c. percentage change in income divided by the percentage change in the quantity demanded.
d. change in per capita income divided by the change in the quantity demanded.
e. percentage change in the quantity demanded divided by the percentage change in per
capita income.
ANS: E
DIF: Easy
TOP: The Income Elasticity of Demand
REF: 53
MSC: Factual
44. In Russia, as per capita income rises from $1,980 to $2,020, everything else remaining constant,
annual per capita consumption of vodka falls from 525 to 475 liters; this implies an income elasticity
of demand for vodka of:
a. โ0.50.
b. โ5.0.
c. 2.0.
d. 5.0.
e. 0.50.
ANS: B
DIF: Easy
TOP: The Income Elasticity of Demand
REF: 53
MSC: Applied
45. The demand for answering machines is Q = 1,000 โ 150P + 25I. Assume that per capita disposable
income I is $200. When the price of answering machines is P = $10, the income elasticity of demand
is:
a. 2.5.
b. 0.11.
c. 1.0.
d. 25.
e. 1.11.
ANS: E
DIF: Easy
TOP: The Income Elasticity of Demand
REF: 53
MSC: Applied
46. In 1965, as per capita income among a particular segment of the population fell from $10,200 to
$9,800, everything else remaining constant, annual per capita consumption of beer fell from 55 to 45
gallons; this implied an income elasticity of demand for beer of:
a. 4.44.
b. 4.55.
c. 5.0.
d. 4.65.
e. 0.5.
ANS: C
DIF: Moderate
TOP: The Income Elasticity of Demand
REF: 53
MSC: Applied
47. The cross-price elasticity of demand is defined as the:
a. percentage change in the quantity demanded of a good divided by the percentage change
in the goodโs price.
b. percentage change in the quantity demanded of a good divided by the percentage change
in a different goodโs price.
c. percentage change in a goodโs price divided by the percentage change in a different goodโs
price.
d. change in the quantity demanded of a good divided by the change in its price.
e. change in the quantity demanded of a good divided by the change in income.
ANS: B
DIF: Easy
REF: 56
TOP: Cross-Price Elasticities of Demand MSC: Factual
48. The formula for the cross-price elasticity of demand can be written as:
a. ๏จXY = (๏QX / ๏PY)(PY / QX).
b. ๏จXY = (๏PY / ๏QX)(PY / QX).
c. ๏จXY = (๏PY / ๏QX)(PY / QX).
d. ๏จXY = (๏PY / ๏QX)(QX / PY).
e. none of the above.
ANS: A
DIF: Moderate
REF: 56
TOP: Cross-Price Elasticities of Demand MSC: Factual
49. The demand for fax machines has been estimated to be Q = 1,000 โ P + 40L, where P is the price of
the machines and L is the average cost of a 10-minute midday call from Los Angeles to New York. At
a fax machine price of $400 and a phone call cost of $10, the cross-price elasticity of demand for fax
machines with respect to the price of phone service is:
a. 0.4.
b. 2.5.
c. โ0.25.
d. 4.0.
e. 4.25.
ANS: A
DIF: Moderate
REF: 56
TOP: Cross-Price Elasticities of Demand MSC: Applied
50. Makers of disposable diapers must advertise 5% more to offset completely the 2% decline in sales due
to heightened environmental concern. The advertising elasticity of demand is:
a. 4.0.
b. 0.4.
c. 2.5.
d. 0.25.
e. 0.20.
ANS: B
DIF: Easy
REF: 57
TOP: The Advertising Elasticity of Demand
MSC: Applied
51. The constant price elasticity of demand for cigarettes has been estimated to be โ0.5. To reduce
smoking by 50%, approximately how much tax needs to be added to a $1 pack?
a. $1.00
b. $2.00
c. $3.00
d. $0.50
e. $4.00
ANS: A
DIF: Moderate
REF: 59
TOP: Calculate the Price Elasticity of Demand
MSC: Conceptual

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