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Economics – Canadian Edition, 16e (Ragan)
Chapter 2 Economic Theories, Data, and Graphs
2.1 Positive and Normative Statements
1) Disagreements over positive statements
A) cannot arise because positive statements are facts.
B) are best handled by an appeal to the facts.
C) arise from the failure to distinguish between a positive and a normative statement.
D) are basically devoid of any emotion.
E) never occur.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Type: MC
Topic: 2.1. positive and normative statements
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-1 Distinguish between positive and normative statements.
Category: Qualitative
2) A positive statement is one that states
A) what is, was, or will be.
B) what is and what should be.
C) what should be but is not.
D) what is desirable.
E) non-negative numbers.
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.1. positive and normative statements
Skill: Recall
Learning Obj.: 2-1 Distinguish between positive and normative statements.
Category: Qualitative
3) Which is the best description of positive statements? Positive statements
A) have been verified by appeal to factual evidence.
B) form the basis of all normative arguments.
C) are falsifiable in principle by appeal to factual evidence.
D) are seldom employed in social sciences like economics.
E) have no place in economics because economics deals only with value judgments.
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.1. positive and normative statements
Skill: Recall
Learning Obj.: 2-1 Distinguish between positive and normative statements.
Category: Qualitative
1
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4) Which is an example of a positive statement?
A) There should be one price for gasoline throughout Canada.
B) The higher the price for gasoline, the less of it will be consumed.
C) Substitutes for fossil fuels should be developed.
D) Canada should reduce its imports of consumer goods.
E) Corporations in Canada should pay more taxes.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Type: MC
Topic: 2.1. positive and normative statements
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-1 Distinguish between positive and normative statements.
Category: Qualitative
5) Which is the best description of a normative statement? A normative statement
A) can be derived logically from facts.
B) concerns what is provable.
C) is a statement that is empirically testable.
D) is one that involves a value judgment.
E) has no place in the study and practice of economics.
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Type: MC
Topic: 2.1. positive and normative statements
Skill: Recall
Learning Obj.: 2-1 Distinguish between positive and normative statements.
Category: Qualitative
6) Which of the following is a normative statement?
A) The sun rises in the west and sets in the east.
B) A government deficit will reduce unemployment and cause an increase in prices.
C) Reducing unemployment is more important than reducing inflation.
D) Queen Elizabeth II is the wealthiest woman in the world.
E) An increase in the price of lumber is followed by a decrease in the construction of new
houses.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Type: MC
Topic: 2.1. positive and normative statements
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-1 Distinguish between positive and normative statements.
Category: Qualitative
2
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
7) Which of the following is a normative statement?
A) The higher is the level of taxes, the lower is consumption spending.
B) The higher is the level of taxes, the higher are wage demands.
C) A reduction in export taxes on petroleum would result in higher wages.
D) Tuition fees should be waived for low-income students.
E) A free-trade agreement between two countries will result in an increase in trade.
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Type: MC
Topic: 2.1. positive and normative statements
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-1 Distinguish between positive and normative statements.
Category: Qualitative
8) Suppose an economist tells you that the unemployment rate in Canada last year was 7.8%.
This is an example of a(n) ________ statement.
A) autonomous
B) positive
C) normative
D) induced
E) imputed
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Type: MC
Topic: 2.1. positive and normative statements
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-1 Distinguish between positive and normative statements.
Category: Qualitative
9) Suppose an economist tells you that, on average, people in Canada have too much personal
debt. This is an example of a(n) ________ statement.
A) autonomous
B) positive
C) normative
D) independent
E) induced
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Type: MC
Topic: 2.1. positive and normative statements
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-1 Distinguish between positive and normative statements.
Category: Qualitative
3
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
10) Which of the following statements belongs more properly in the field of normative
economics than positive economics?
A) An increase in the minimum wage leads to more unemployment.
B) The price of one Canadian dollar is $0.85 U.S.
C) When a drought occurs, the price of vegetables tends to rise.
D) Canadian governments should provide assistance to the auto industry.
E) Technological change has reduced the cost of cell phone service.
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.1. positive and normative statements
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-1 Distinguish between positive and normative statements.
Category: Qualitative
11) Which of the following best describes the relationship between positive and normative
statements in economics?
A) Normative statements are those with which all economists agree; positive statements may
give rise to some disagreement.
B) Positive and normative statements are alternate ways of describing the desirability of certain
economic policies.
C) Normative statements evaluate the desirability of certain economic changes; positive
statements do not.
D) Neither positive nor normative statements are concerned with the desirability of certain
economic changes.
E) Economists generally agree with each other regardless of whether a question is positive or
normative.
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.1. positive and normative statements
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-1 Distinguish between positive and normative statements.
Category: Qualitative
12) An assertion about the desirability of reducing unemployment by lowering payroll taxes is
most likely
A) a theory.
B) a testable proposition.
C) a hypothesis.
D) a normative statement.
E) a positive statement.
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.1. positive and normative statements
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-1 Distinguish between positive and normative statements.
Category: Qualitative
4
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
2.2 Building and Testing Economic Theories
1) Which of the following best describes a theory? A theory
A) enables one to predict the future with certainty.
B) is designed to explain and predict what we observe.
C) is used to impose order on the world.
D) can only be tested with a controlled experiment.
E) assumes definitions for variables.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Type: MC
Topic: 2.2a. economic theories
Skill: Recall
Learning Obj.: 2-2 Explain why and how economists use theories to help them understand the
economy.
Category: Qualitative
2) An economic theory requires, among other things,
A) a set of definitions of the variables to be considered.
B) a controlled laboratory setting in which the theory can be tested.
C) that the set of predictions be correct.
D) a set of value judgments to interpret the empirical evidence.
E) the use of endogenous variables only.
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.2a. economic theories
Skill: Recall
Learning Obj.: 2-2 Explain why and how economists use theories to help them understand the
economy.
Category: Qualitative
3) Choose the statement that best describes how endogenous variables differ from exogenous
variables.
A) An endogenous variable is a flow, while an exogenous variable is a stock.
B) An endogenous variable is explained outside the theory and influences an exogenous variable
while an exogenous variable is explained within the theory.
C) An exogenous variable is a function of the endogenous variable, and both are flow variables.
D) An endogenous variable is a function of the exogenous variable, and both are stock variables.
E) An endogenous variable is explained within the theory, while an exogenous variable
influences the endogenous variables but is determined outside the theory.
Answer: E
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.2a. economic theories
Skill: Recall
Learning Obj.: 2-2 Explain why and how economists use theories to help them understand the
economy.
Category: Qualitative
5
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4) Suppose there is a theory that several things influence the price of fish in Halifax, one of
which is the weather during the fishing season. When examining the determinants of the price of
fish, the weather is
A) an endogenous variable, as it influences the price of fish.
B) an exogenous variable, as it is determined outside the theory.
C) a stock, as it influences the quantity of fish caught.
D) an act of God and, therefore, has no legitimate connection with the theory.
E) an endogenous variable, as it is determined within the theory.
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.2a. economic theories
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-2 Explain why and how economists use theories to help them understand the
economy.
Category: Qualitative
5) The statement that a country’s rate of economic growth is positively influenced by its level of
investment is an example of a(n)
A) variable.
B) definition.
C) normative statement.
D) theory.
E) economic law.
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.2a. economic theories
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-2 Explain why and how economists use theories to help them understand the
economy.
Category: Qualitative
6) The statement that a 2% increase in the money supply leads to a 2% increase in the price level
is an example of a(n)
A) prediction.
B) assumption.
C) normative statement.
D) variable.
E) model.
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.2a. economic theories
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-2 Explain why and how economists use theories to help them understand the
economy.
Category: Qualitative
6
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
7) The statement that introducing a policy of legislated rent controls will lead to a housing
shortage is an example of a(n)
A) assumption.
B) prediction.
C) theory.
D) normative statement.
E) model.
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.2a. economic theories
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-2 Explain why and how economists use theories to help them understand the
economy.
Category: Qualitative
8) Choose the statement that best characterizes an economic theory. A valid theory
A) allows one to deduce a normative statement.
B) appeals to the law of large numbers.
C) generates a hypothesis that can predict future events.
D) extrapolates from the past behaviour of a variable to predict its future course.
E) allows one to prove irrefutably one’s hypothesis.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Type: MC
Topic: 2.2a. economic theories
Skill: Recall
Learning Obj.: 2-2 Explain why and how economists use theories to help them understand the
economy.
Category: Qualitative
9) Choose the statement that best characterizes an economic theory. An economic theory
A) is only useful if its underlying assumptions are realistic.
B) will be useful as long as it is logically consistent.
C) must be judged on its ability to explain and predict real-world phenomena.
D) will predict more accurately if it contains a greater number of mathematical equations.
E) will be useful only if all human behaviour is rational.
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.2a. economic theories
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-2 Explain why and how economists use theories to help them understand the
economy.
Category: Qualitative
7
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
10) Which of the following pairs of words have similar meanings?
A) induced and autonomous
B) endogenous and autonomous
C) independent and exogenous
D) dependent and exogenous
E) induced and exogenous
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.2a. economic theories
Skill: Recall
Learning Obj.: 2-2 Explain why and how economists use theories to help them understand the
economy.
Category: Qualitative
11) Choose the answer that best explains why economists build models that abstract from the
complexities of reality.
A) Because the complexities of reality are unimportant.
B) Because they believe they gain a greater understanding of reality.
C) Because economists are not interested in reality.
D) Because this allows economists to conduct controlled experiments to test their theories.
E) Because economics deals only in the abstract.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Type: MC
Topic: 2.2a. economic theories
Skill: Recall
Learning Obj.: 2-2 Explain why and how economists use theories to help them understand the
economy.
Category: Qualitative
12) Suppose an individual wheat farmer’s income is influenced by the region’s average daily
temperature. When examining the determinants of individual farmer income, the average daily
temperature is a(n) ________ variable.
A) endogenous
B) exogenous
C) flow
D) dependent
E) induced
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.2a. economic theories
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-2 Explain why and how economists use theories to help them understand the
economy.
Category: Qualitative
8
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
13) If we seek to explain the number of seats sold on a particular air route, say Toronto to
Halifax, over a one-year period, we would consider many variables. Which of the following
variables would be endogenous to our theory?
A) the average salary of Canadian airline pilots
B) the number of airline seats sold on this route
C) the price of jet fuel
D) the number of fog days in Halifax
E) the unemployment rate in Toronto
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.2a. economic theories
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-2 Explain why and how economists use theories to help them understand the
economy.
Category: Qualitative
14) When an economist assumes that the owners of firms are motivated only by the desire to
maximize profits, the economist most likely believes that
A) all people enter business for their own selfish gain.
B) the assumption is descriptively accurate, since surveys have been taken and the owners of
firms have admitted that their only objective is to maximize profits.
C) it doesn’t matter whether or not the assumption is descriptively accurate; what matters is
whether a theory built on the assumption predicts well.
D) the assumption is inaccurate, since surveys have been taken and the owners of firms have
admitted that they care about more than just profits.
E) individuals entering business are quite narrow in their personal objectives.
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.2a. economic theories
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-2 Explain why and how economists use theories to help them understand the
economy.
Category: Qualitative
15) An economic model that contains a highly realistic set of assumptions is
A) useful because there is then very little difference between “theory” and “reality.”
B) necessarily better able to predict the future.
C) certainly superior to a model whose assumptions are somewhat unrealistic.
D) more abstract than a model whose assumptions are further removed from reality.
E) not likely to be useful because of its particularized nature and its complexity.
Answer: E
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.2a. economic theories
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-2 Explain why and how economists use theories to help them understand the
economy.
Category: Qualitative
9
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
16) Economists build models that abstract from the complexities of reality because
A) it is easier to do so.
B) they believe they gain a greater understanding of reality.
C) economists are not interested in reality.
D) economists do not understand the real world.
E) the complexities of reality are unimportant.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Type: MC
Topic: 2.2a. economic theories
Skill: Recall
Learning Obj.: 2-2 Explain why and how economists use theories to help them understand the
economy.
Category: Qualitative
17) Suppose we have data for 1000 students for a period of one year. The data show that those
students who spend more hours studying have a higher grade point average (GPA). We can say
that
A) if hours of study time increase, then GPA will automatically increase.
B) having a higher GPA leads students to spend more time studying.
C) there is a causal relationship between hours of study time and GPA.
D) more hours spent studying leads to a higher GPA.
E) there is a positive correlation between hours of study time and GPA.
Answer: E
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.2b. testing theories
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-3 Understand the interaction between economic theories and empirical
observation.
Category: Qualitative
18) Suppose economists at the World Bank discover a positive correlation between family
income and female education levels in developing countries. We can say that
A) the correlation is inconsistent with a theory that an increase in female education levels causes
an increase in family income.
B) an increase in family income causes an increase in female education levels.
C) an increase in female education levels causes an increase in family incomes.
D) there is a causal relationship between family income and female education.
E) the observed correlation is consistent with a theory that an increase in female education levels
causes an increase in family income.
Answer: E
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.2b. testing theories
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-3 Understand the interaction between economic theories and empirical
observation.
Category: Qualitative
10
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
19) Economists at the Department of Finance in Ottawa employ an economic model that predicts
the effects of an increase in the GST. After implementation of the change, suppose researchers
find that the empirical data is in conflict with the model’s prediction. They are likely to
A) modify the prediction in light of the new evidence.
B) ignore the empirical evidence and continue using the model.
C) modify the model in light of this newly acquired empirical knowledge.
D) reject the empirical data as faulty because it did not support the theory.
E) modify the data to suit the definitions and assumptions.
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.2b. testing theories
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-3 Understand the interaction between economic theories and empirical
observation.
Category: Qualitative
20) Suppose economists at the World Bank develop a theory with a prediction that increased
levels of foreign aid lead to increases in per capita GDP in the recipient developing countries.
They find empirical evidence that is consistent with this theory. The economists are able to
conclude that
A) the theory is valid, but should be subjected to continued scrutiny.
B) the theory has been proven correct.
C) the theory is always reliable.
D) the evidence is rejected by the theory.
E) the assumptions used in the theory have been proven correct.
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.2b. testing theories
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-3 Understand the interaction between economic theories and empirical
observation.
Category: Qualitative
11
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
21) Suppose a theory predicts that lowering tuition fees at Canadian universities will increase
enrollment from low-income households. If empirical evidence is inconsistent with this
prediction, then we
A) need to amend the theory.
B) should test the theory again.
C) should change the empirical data.
D) should increase tuition fees back to their initial level.
E) change the exogenous variables in the theory.
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.2b. testing theories
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-3 Understand the interaction between economic theories and empirical
observation.
Category: Qualitative
22) A hypothesis (or a prediction) is a statement about
A) how assumptions affect theories.
B) those things which we believe to be true, but cannot prove.
C) what will certainly happen in the future.
D) the relationship between facts explained by the hypothesis.
E) how two or more variables are related to each other.
Answer: E
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.2b. testing theories
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-3 Understand the interaction between economic theories and empirical
observation.
Category: Qualitative
23) The scientific approach is central to the study of economics. In economic theory, a prediction
is
A) not testable.
B) a prophesy of how the future will unfold.
C) a causal statement of the following form: A will occur because B occurred.
D) a conditional statement of the following form: if A occurs, then B will follow.
E) always based on the law of large numbers.
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.2b. testing theories
Skill: Recall
Learning Obj.: 2-3 Understand the interaction between economic theories and empirical
observation.
Category: Qualitative
12
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
24) Of the following, which is the most important characteristic of a successful theory?
A) The theory provides a basis for facts about economic behaviour.
B) The theory could never be refuted.
C) The theory adequately explains all economic behaviour.
D) All assumptions on which the theory is based are true.
E) The theory allows us to predict behaviour reasonably accurately.
Answer: E
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.2b. testing theories
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-3 Understand the interaction between economic theories and empirical
observation.
Category: Qualitative
25) The scientific approach to economic inquiry involves
A) choosing data that will support the predictions.
B) using only endogenous variables in economic models.
C) testing the predictions with empirical data.
D) testing the reality of the assumptions of the model.
E) using only independent variables.
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.2b. testing theories
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-3 Understand the interaction between economic theories and empirical
observation.
Category: Qualitative
26) Economics is scientific because
A) economists routinely conduct controlled experiments.
B) individual behaviour is predictable.
C) economists routinely conduct laboratory experiments.
D) economists use data.
E) economists test hypotheses by appealing to empirical evidence.
Answer: E
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.2b. testing theories
Skill: Recall
Learning Obj.: 2-3 Understand the interaction between economic theories and empirical
observation.
Category: Qualitative
13
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
27) In order to test a theory, one must
A) develop a better explanation than the one presented.
B) present a series of normative statements and positive statements.
C) use assumptions that most closely reflect reality.
D) develop normative statements from the law of large numbers.
E) confront the predictions of the theory with evidence.
Answer: E
Diff: 1
Type: MC
Topic: 2.2b. testing theories
Skill: Recall
Learning Obj.: 2-3 Understand the interaction between economic theories and empirical
observation.
Category: Qualitative
28) Suppose a particular theory predicts that on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday the stock
market will rise and that on Tuesday and Thursday the stock market will fall. If an economist
tests this theory and finds that over a six-month period the theory predicts accurately, the
economist would likely say that the theory
A) has been proven correct.
B) is reliable.
C) is not in conflict with the evidence.
D) shouldn’t be taken seriously.
E) is not useful because stock markets involve irrational human behaviour.
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.2b. testing theories
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-3 Understand the interaction between economic theories and empirical
observation.
Category: Qualitative
29) If a theory’s prediction is tested and is in conflict with the evidence,
A) the original data and assumptions should be discarded.
B) it is rejected with certainty, because it is not possible to reject a hypothesis that is actually
true.
C) the statistical tolerance of risk for accepting a false hypothesis should be increased.
D) inquiry into the matter should cease.
E) a new hypothesis is usually suggested and tested.
Answer: E
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.2b. testing theories
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-3 Understand the interaction between economic theories and empirical
observation.
Category: Qualitative
14
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
30) When testing theories, economics is disadvantaged compared to the natural sciences because
A) it deals with human behaviour and thus is not open to empirical testing.
B) it is usually not possible to conduct controlled experiments in economics, in contrast with
certain other sciences.
C) economic hypotheses cannot be accepted with complete certainty, by contrast with the other
sciences.
D) economic variables do not change enough to provide reliable data for testing hypotheses.
E) some economic variables are determined within the theory.
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.2b. testing theories
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-3 Understand the interaction between economic theories and empirical
observation.
Category: Qualitative
31) Most economists believe that economic analysis ________ be made completely free of
judgement, in part because it is ________ to absolutely refute a theory on the basis of factual
evidence.
A) can; possible
B) can; impossible
C) cannot; possible
D) cannot; impossible
E) will; necessary
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.2b. testing theories
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-3 Understand the interaction between economic theories and empirical
observation.
Category: Qualitative
15
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
2.3 Economic Data
1) When studying economic data, and when comparing the magnitude of changes in variables
with different scales it is best to
A) compare the absolute data on each variable.
B) compare the relative data on each variable.
C) express each variable as an index number.
D) express each variable as a logarithmic number.
E) use only time-series data.
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3a. index numbers
Skill: Recall
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Category: Qualitative
2) When studying economic data, index numbers are especially valuable when comparing
A) relative movements in different variables measured in different units.
B) relative movements in real and nominal variables.
C) linear and logarithmic data.
D) time-series data with cross-sectional data.
E) government data with private-sector data.
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3a. index numbers
Skill: Recall
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Category: Qualitative
3) The base year for an index number is
A) determined by the year the variable equals exactly 100.
B) dependant upon the type of data.
C) declared by the federal government.
D) chosen arbitrarily by those who construct the data series.
E) the year in which 2 or more index numbers are equal to 100.
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3a. index numbers
Skill: Recall
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Category: Qualitative
16
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
4) For a given year, an index number of average prices across the economy (in Canada, the
Consumer Price Index) is the ratio of the
A) price of several goods in the given year to that in the base year.
B) simple average price of all goods in the given year to that in the base year.
C) average price of several goods in the base year to that in the given year.
D) weighted prices of a typical bundle of goods purchased in a given year to that in the base
year.
E) weighted prices of a typical bundle of goods purchased in the base year to that in the given
year.
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3a. index numbers
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Category: Qualitative
5) An index number expresses the value of a variable in any given period
A) as a percentage of its value in the base period.
B) as a weighted average.
C) as a proportional weighted average.
D) as an average of its value in the base period.
E) as an absolute compared to the base period.
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3a. index numbers
Skill: Recall
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Category: Qualitative
17
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
6) Let 1 stand for “any given period” and 2 stand for “base period.” The formula of any index
number can be written as
A) value of index at 1 =
ร 100.
B) value of index at 1 =
ร 100.
C) value of index at 1 =
ร 100.
D) value of index at 1 =
.
E) value of index at 1 =
.
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3a. index numbers
Skill: Recall
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Category: Quantitative
7) The table below shows hypothetical tuition costs at a Canadian university.
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
Tuition
$5000
$5050
$5100
$5150
$5200
TABLE 2-1
Refer to Table 2-1. Assume that 2015 is used as the base year, with the index number = 100. The
value of the index number in 2017 is calculated as follows:
A) (5000/5100) ร 100 = 98.
B) 5100/5000 = 1.02.
C) 5000/5100 = 0.98.
D) 5100/5100 = 100.
E) (5100/5000) ร 100 = 102.
Answer: E
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3a. index numbers
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Graphics: Table
Category: Quantitative
18
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
8) The table below shows hypothetical tuition costs at a Canadian university.
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
Tuition
$5000
$5050
$5100
$5150
$5200
TABLE 2-1
Refer to Table 2-1. Assume that 2015 is used as the base year, with the index number = 100. The
value of the index number in 2019 is
A) 100.
B) 104.
C) 1.04.
D) 96.
E) 0.96.
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3a. index numbers
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Graphics: Table
Category: Quantitative
19
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
9) The table below shows hypothetical tuition costs at a Canadian university.
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
Tuition
$5000
$5050
$5100
$5150
$5200
TABLE 2-1
Refer to Table 2-1. The increase in tuition fees from 2015 to 2019 is
A) 200.
B) 100/5000.
C) 4%.
D) 0.04%.
E) 200/5200.
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3a. index numbers
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Graphics: Table
Category: Quantitative
20
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
10) The table below shows hypothetical tuition costs at a Canadian university.
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
Tuition
$5000
$5050
$5100
$5150
$5200
TABLE 2-1
Refer to Table 2-1. Assume that 2017 is used as the base year, with the index number = 100. The
value of the index number in 2015 is calculated as follows:
A) 5000/5100 = 0.98.
B) (5100/5000) ร 100 = 102.
C) 5100/5000 = 1.02.
D) 5100/5100 = 100.
E) (5000/5100) ร 100 = 98.
Answer: E
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3a. index numbers
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Graphics: Table
Category: Quantitative
21
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
11) The table below shows hypothetical monthly cell phone plan fees for the identical service
over several years.
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
$55
$50
$40
$35
$25
TABLE 2-2
Refer to Table 2-2. Assume that 2015 is used as the base year, with the index number = 100. The
value of the index number in 2018 is calculated as follows:
A) (35/100) ร 100 = 35.
B) 35/55 = 0.64.
C) 55/35 = 1.57.
D) (35/55) ร 100 = 63.64.
E) (55/35) ร 100 = 157.14.
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3a. index numbers
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Graphics: Table
Category: Quantitative
22
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
12) The table below shows hypothetical monthly cell phone plan fees for the identical service
over several years.
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
$55
$50
$40
$35
$25
TABLE 2-2
Refer to Table 2-2. Assume that 2015 is used as the base year, with the index number = 100. The
value of the index number in 2019 is
A) 0.25.
B) 2.5.
C) 25.0.
D) 0.45.
E) 45.45.
Answer: E
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3a. index numbers
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Graphics: Table
Category: Quantitative
23
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
13) The table below shows hypothetical monthly cell phone plan fees for the identical service
over several years.
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
$55
$50
$40
$35
$25
TABLE 2-2
Refer to Table 2-2. Assume that 2015 is used as the base year, with the index number = 100. The
value of the index number in 2017 is
A) 100.
B) 0.72.
C) 72.73.
D) 1.375.
E) 137.5.
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3a. index numbers
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Graphics: Table
Category: Quantitative
24
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
14) The table below shows hypothetical monthly cell phone plan fees for the identical service
over several years.
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
$55
$50
$40
$35
$25
TABLE 2-2
Refer to Table 2-2. Assume that 2015 is used as the base year, with the index number = 100.
What is the percentage change in the monthly fee from 2018 to 2019?
A) -28.6%
B) -10.0%
C) -71.4%
D) -25.0%
E) -35.0%
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3a. index numbers
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Graphics: Table
Category: Quantitative
25
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
15) The table below shows hypothetical monthly cell phone plan fees for the identical service
over several years.
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
$55
$50
$40
$35
$25
TABLE 2-2
Refer to Table 2-2. Assume that 2015 is used as the base year, with the index number = 100.
Which of the following series is the correct set of index numbers for the monthly cell phone
charges from 2015 to 2019?
A) 0.55; 0.50; 0.40; 0.35; 0.25
B) 100; 91; 73; 64; 45
C) 55; 50; 40; 35; 25
D) 1.0; 0.91; 0.73; 0.64; 0.45
E) 100%; 91%; 73%; 64%; 45%
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3a. index numbers
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Graphics: Table
Category: Quantitative
26
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
16) The table below shows hypothetical data for volumes of e-books and hardcover books sold
over a 3-year period in a particular city.
Year 1
Year 2
Year 3
E-books
23 000
52 000
106 000
Hardcover Books
72 000
59 000
31 000
TABLE 2-3
Refer to Table 2-3. Suppose we choose Year 1 as the base year and construct a series of index
numbers with which to analyze the sales data. The index numbers for volumes of e-books sold
(starting with Year 1) is
A) 100; 44.2; 21.7.
B) 100; 226.1; 460.9.
C) 23 000; 52 000; 106 000.
D) 100; 126.1; 360.1.
E) 1; 0.442; 0.217.
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3a. index numbers
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Graphics: Table
Category: Quantitative
27
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
17) The table below shows hypothetical data for volumes of e-books and hardcover books sold
over a 3-year period in a particular city.
Year 1
Year 2
Year 3
E-books
23 000
52 000
106 000
Hardcover Books
72 000
59 000
31 000
TABLE 2-3
Refer to Table 2-3. Suppose we choose Year 1 as the base year and construct a series of index
numbers with which to analyze sales data. The index numbers for volumes of hardcover books
sold (starting with Year 1) is
A) 431; 819; 100.
B) 43.1; 81.9; 100.
C) 100; 81.9; 43.1.
D) 100; 0.819; 0.431.
E) 0.431; 0.819; 100.
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3a. index numbers
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Graphics: Table
Category: Quantitative
28
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
18) The table below shows hypothetical data for volumes of e-books and hardcover books sold
over a 3-year period in a particular city.
Year 1
Year 2
Year 3
E-books
23 000
52 000
106 000
Hardcover Books
72 000
59 000
31 000
TABLE 2-3
Refer to Table 2-3. Between Year 1 and Year 3, what is the percentage change in sales of ebooks?
A) 83 000%
B) 460.9%
C) 360.9%
D) 21.7%
E) 83%
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3a. index numbers
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Graphics: Table
Category: Quantitative
29
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
19) The table below shows hypothetical data for volumes of e-books and hardcover books sold
over a 3-year period in a particular city.
Year 1
Year 2
Year 3
E-books
23 000
52 000
106 000
Hardcover Books
72 000
59 000
31 000
TABLE 2-3
Refer to Table 2-3. Between Year 1 and Year 3, what is the percentage change in sales of
hardcover books?
A) 0.569%
B) 56.9%
C) -56.9%
D) -0.569%
E) -569%
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3a. index numbers
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Graphics: Table
Category: Quantitative
30
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
20) The table below shows hypothetical prices for a particular anatomy textbook at a university
bookstore over several years.
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
Price
$180
$185
$205
$215
$220
TABLE 2-4
Refer to Table 2-4. Assume that 2015 is used as the base year, with the index number = 100. The
value of the index number in 2018 is calculated as follows:
A) 215/180 = 1.194.
B) 180/215 = 0.837.
C) (215/180) ร 100 = 119.4.
D) (180/215) ร 100 = 83.7.
E) (215 – 180) = 35.
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3a. index numbers
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Graphics: Table
Category: Quantitative
31
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
21) The table below shows hypothetical prices for a particular anatomy textbook at a university
bookstore over several years.
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
Price
$180
$185
$205
$215
$220
TABLE 2-4
Refer to Table 2-4. Assume that 2015 is used as the base year, with the index number = 100. The
value of the index number in 2017 is
A) 0.878.
B) 1.0.
C) 1.139.
D) 87.8.
E) 113.9.
Answer: E
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3a. index numbers
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Graphics: Table
Category: Quantitative
32
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
22) The table below shows hypothetical prices for a particular anatomy textbook at a university
bookstore over several years.
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
Price
$180
$185
$205
$215
$220
TABLE 2-4
Refer to Table 2-4. Assume that 2019 is used as the base year, with the index number = 100. The
value of the index number in 2015 is
A) 0.818.
B) 1.0.
C) 1.222.
D) 81.8.
E) 122.2.
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3a. index numbers
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Graphics: Table
Category: Quantitative
33
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
23) The table below shows hypothetical prices for a particular anatomy textbook at a university
bookstore over several years.
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
Price
$180
$185
$205
$215
$220
TABLE 2-4
Refer to Table 2-4. The increase in the price of the textbook from 2015 to 2019 is
A) -40.
B) 40.
C) 18.2%.
D) 22.2%.
E) 40%.
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3a. index numbers
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Graphics: Table
Category: Quantitative
34
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
24) The table below shows hypothetical data for the volume of gold and nickel output across
several years.
Year 1
Year 2
Year 3
Year 4
Year 5
Year 6
Year 7
Year 8
Gold
(troy ounces)
1 230 000
1 416 000
1 349 000
947 000
1 012 000
1 321 000
1 450 000
1 510 000
Index
100
Nickel
(lbs)
4500
4551
4623
4791
4802
4867
5002
5117
Index
100
TABLE 2-5
Refer to Table 2-5. What is the index number for gold output in Year 1?
A) 0.91
B) 109.7
C) 1.097
D) 91.2
E) 99.7
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3a. index numbers
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Graphics: Table
Category: Quantitative
35
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
25) The table below shows hypothetical data for the volume of gold and nickel output across
several years.
Year 1
Year 2
Year 3
Year 4
Year 5
Year 6
Year 7
Year 8
Gold
(troy ounces)
1 230 000
1 416 000
1 349 000
947 000
1 012 000
1 321 000
1 450 000
1 510 000
Index
100
Nickel
(lbs)
4500
4551
4623
4791
4802
4867
5002
5117
Index
100
TABLE 2-5
Refer to Table 2-5. What is the index number for gold output in Year 8?
A) 111.9
B) 111.9%
C) 11.9
D) 11.9%
E) 1.119
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3a. index numbers
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Graphics: Table
Category: Quantitative
36
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
26) The table below shows hypothetical data for the volume of gold and nickel output across
several years.
Year 1
Year 2
Year 3
Year 4
Year 5
Year 6
Year 7
Year 8
Gold
(troy ounces)
1 230 000
1 416 000
1 349 000
947 000
1 012 000
1 321 000
1 450 000
1 510 000
Index
100
Nickel
(lbs)
4500
4551
4623
4791
4802
4867
5002
5117
Index
100
TABLE 2-5
Refer to Table 2-5. What is the index number for nickel output in Year 6?
A) 108.2
B) 105.3
C) 110.7
D) 95.0
E) 95.0%
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3a. index numbers
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Graphics: Table
Category: Quantitative
37
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
27) The table below shows hypothetical data for the volume of gold and nickel output across
several years.
Year 1
Year 2
Year 3
Year 4
Year 5
Year 6
Year 7
Year 8
Gold
(troy ounces)
1 230 000
1 416 000
1 349 000
947 000
1 012 000
1 321 000
1 450 000
1 510 000
Index
100
Nickel
(lbs)
4500
4551
4623
4791
4802
4867
5002
5117
Index
100
TABLE 2-5
Refer to Table 2-5. What is the index number for nickel output in Year 2?
A) 98.4%
B) 98.4
C) -72.0%
D) 72.0%
E) 0.984%
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3a. index numbers
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Graphics: Table
Category: Quantitative
38
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
28) The table below shows hypothetical data for the volume of gold and nickel output across
several years.
Year 1
Year 2
Year 3
Year 4
Year 5
Year 6
Year 7
Year 8
Gold
(troy ounces)
1 230 000
1 416 000
1 349 000
947 000
1 012 000
1 321 000
1 450 000
1 510 000
Index
100
Nickel
(lbs)
4500
4551
4623
4791
4802
4867
5002
5117
Index
100
TABLE 2-6
Refer to Table 2-6. What is the index number for gold output in Year 2?
A) 97.7%
B) 0.977
C) -3.4%
D) 97.7
E) -34%
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3a. index numbers
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Graphics: Table
Category: Quantitative
39
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
29) The table below shows hypothetical data for the volume of gold and nickel output across
several years.
Year 1
Year 2
Year 3
Year 4
Year 5
Year 6
Year 7
Year 8
Gold
(troy ounces)
1 230 000
1 416 000
1 349 000
947 000
1 012 000
1 321 000
1 450 000
1 510 000
Index
100
Nickel
(lbs)
4500
4551
4623
4791
4802
4867
5002
5117
Index
100
TABLE 2-6
Refer to Table 2-6. What is the index number for gold output in Year 8?
A) 104.1%
B) 104.1
C) 1.04
D) 60
E) 60%
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3a. index numbers
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Graphics: Table
Category: Quantitative
40
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
30) The table below shows hypothetical data for the volume of gold and nickel output across
several years.
Year 1
Year 2
Year 3
Year 4
Year 5
Year 6
Year 7
Year 8
Gold
(troy ounces)
1 230 000
1 416 000
1 349 000
947 000
1 012 000
1 321 000
1 450 000
1 510 000
Index
100
Nickel
(lbs)
4500
4551
4623
4791
4802
4867
5002
5117
Index
100
TABLE 2-6
Refer to Table 2-6. What is the index number for nickel output in Year 5?
A) -200
B) -200%
C) 96
D) 0.96%
E) 96%
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3a. index numbers
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Graphics: Table
Category: Quantitative
41
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
31) The table below shows hypothetical data for the volume of gold and nickel output across
several years.
Year 1
Year 2
Year 3
Year 4
Year 5
Year 6
Year 7
Year 8
Gold
(troy ounces)
1 230 000
1 416 000
1 349 000
947 000
1 012 000
1 321 000
1 450 000
1 510 000
Index
100
Nickel
(lbs)
4500
4551
4623
4791
4802
4867
5002
5117
Index
100
TABLE 2-6
Refer to Table 2-6. What is the index number for nickel output in Year 3?
A) 92.4%
B) -379
C) 379
D) 0.924%
E) 92.4
Answer: E
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3a. index numbers
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Graphics: Table
Category: Quantitative
42
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
32) The table below shows hypothetical data for the volume of gold and nickel output across
several years.
Year 1
Year 2
Year 3
Year 4
Year 5
Year 6
Year 7
Year 8
Gold
(troy ounces)
1 230 000
1 416 000
1 349 000
947 000
1 012 000
1 321 000
1 450 000
1 510 000
Index
100
Nickel
(lbs)
4500
4551
4623
4791
4802
4867
5002
5117
Index
100
TABLE 2-6
Refer to Table 2-6. What is the percentage change in gold output from Year 1 to Year 7?
A) 17.9%
B) 84.8%
C) 15.2%
D) -15.2%
E) 0.152%
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3a. index numbers
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Graphics: Table
Category: Quantitative
43
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
33) The table below shows the approximate value of Canada’s crude oil and natural gas exports
over a 5-year period. The amounts shown are billions of dollars.
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
Crude Oil
81.9
91.5
55.8
49.9
66.9
Natural Gas
11.2
15.7
9.8
8.8
10.3
TABLE 2-7
Refer to Table 2-7. Assume that 2013 is the base year, with an index number = 100. What is the
index number for the value of crude oil exports in 2017?
A) 1.22
B) 122.4
C) 122.4%
D) 0.817
E) 81.7
Answer: E
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3a. index numbers
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Graphics: Table
Category: Quantitative
44
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
34) The table below shows the approximate value of Canada’s crude oil and natural gas exports
over a 5-year period. The amounts shown are billions of dollars.
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
Crude Oil
81.9
91.5
55.8
49.9
66.9
Natural Gas
11.2
15.7
9.8
8.8
10.3
TABLE 2-7
Refer to Table 2-7. Assume that 2013 is the base year, with an index number = 100. What is the
index number for the value of natural gas exports in 2017?
A) 0.912
B) 92.0
C) 92.0%
D) 1.09
E) 109.7
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3a. index numbers
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Graphics: Table
Category: Quantitative
45
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
35) The table below shows the approximate value of Canada’s crude oil and natural gas exports
over a 5-year period. The amounts shown are billions of dollars.
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
Crude Oil
81.9
91.5
55.8
49.9
66.9
Natural Gas
11.2
15.7
9.8
8.8
10.3
TABLE 2-7
Refer to Table 2-7. Assume that 2013 is the base year, with an index number = 100. What is the
index number for the value of crude oil exports in 2016?
A) 1.64
B) 164.1
C) 60.9
D) 0.609
E) 60.9%
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3a. index numbers
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Graphics: Table
Category: Quantitative
46
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
36) The table below shows the approximate value of Canada’s crude oil and natural gas exports
over a 5-year period. The amounts shown are billions of dollars.
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
Crude Oil
81.9
91.5
55.8
49.9
66.9
Natural Gas
11.2
15.7
9.8
8.8
10.3
TABLE 2-7
Refer to Table 2-7. Assume that 2013 is the base year, with an index number = 100. What is the
index number for the value of natural gas exports in 2016?
A) 0.109
B) 108.7%
C) 108.7
D) 78.6
E) 0.786
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3a. index numbers
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Graphics: Table
Category: Quantitative
47
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
37) The table below shows the approximate value of Canada’s crude oil and natural gas exports
over a 5-year period. The amounts shown are billions of dollars.
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
Crude Oil
81.9
91.5
55.8
49.9
66.9
Natural Gas
11.2
15.7
9.8
8.8
10.3
TABLE 2-7
Refer to Table 2-7. Assume that 2013 is the base year, with an index number = 100. What is the
percentage change in the value of exports of crude oil from 2013 to 2017?
A) -18.3%
B) -183.2%
C) -100%
D) 18.3%
E) 183.2%
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3a. index numbers
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Graphics: Table
Category: Quantitative
48
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
38) The table below shows the approximate value of Canada’s crude oil and natural gas exports
over a 5-year period. The amounts shown are billions of dollars.
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
Crude Oil
81.9
91.5
55.8
49.9
66.9
Natural Gas
11.2
15.7
9.8
8.8
10.3
TABLE 2-7
Refer to Table 2-7. Assume that 2013 is the base year, with an index number = 100. What is the
percentage change in the value of exports of natural gas from 2013 to 2017?
A) 0.8%
B) 8%
C) -0.8%
D) -18%
E) -8%
Answer: E
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3a. index numbers
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Graphics: Table
Category: Quantitative
49
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
39) The table below shows the approximate value of Canada’s crude oil and natural gas exports
over a 5-year period. The amounts shown are billions of dollars.
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
Crude Oil
81.9
91.5
55.8
49.9
66.9
Natural Gas
11.2
15.7
9.8
8.8
10.3
TABLE 2-7
Refer to Table 2-7. Assume that 2013 is the base year, with an index number = 100. What is the
percentage change in the value of exports of crude oil from 2016 to 2017?
A) 0.34%
B) 34%
C) -0.34%
D) -34%
E) -18%
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3a. index numbers
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Graphics: Table
Category: Quantitative
50
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
40) The table below shows the approximate value of Canada’s crude oil and natural gas exports
over a 5-year period. The amounts shown are billions of dollars.
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
Crude Oil
81.9
91.5
55.8
49.9
66.9
Natural Gas
11.2
15.7
9.8
8.8
10.3
TABLE 2-7
Refer to Table 2-7. Assume that 2013 is the base year, with an index number = 100. What is the
percentage change in the value of exports of natural gas from 2016 to 2017?
A) 14.6%
B) -14.6%
C) -18.7%
D) 17.0%
E) -17.0%
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3a. index numbers
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Graphics: Table
Category: Quantitative
41) According to the Bank of Canada’s website, Canada’s Consumer Price Index (CPI) in August
2015 was 127.3, August 2016 was 128.7, August 2017 was 130.5 and August 2018 was 134.2.
Given this set of index numbers, what can we conclude about average prices in Canada between
August 2015 and August 2018?
A) Average prices increased over this time period by 6.9 percent per year.
B) Average prices decreased over this time period by 6.9%.
C) Average prices decreased each year.
D) Average prices increased over this time period by 6.9%.
E) Average prices increased each year.
Answer: E
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3a. index numbers
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Category: Quantitative
51
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
42) According to the Bank of Canada’s website, Canada’s Consumer Price Index (CPI) in August
2015 was 127.3, August 2016 was 128.7, August 2017 was 130.5 and August 2018 was 134.2.
Given this set of index numbers, what is the percentage change in the average level of prices
between August 2015 and August 2018?
A) 127.3%
B) 134.2%
C) 6.9%
D) 5.4%
E) 5.1%
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3a. index numbers
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Category: Quantitative
43) An economist collects data comparing per-capita expenditures on health care across
provinces and territories for the year 2018. The best way to illustrate this data is
A) a time-series line graph.
B) a cross-sectional bar-chart graph.
C) a scatter diagram.
D) a logarithmic scale diagram.
E) a time-series bar chart diagram.
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3b. graphing economic data
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Category: Qualitative
44) An economist has data showing Canadian GDP for the years 1945-2018. The best way to
illustrate these data is
A) a time-series line graph.
B) a cross-sectional bar-chart graph.
C) a scatter diagram.
D) a logarithmic scale diagram.
E) a time-series pie chart.
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3b. graphing economic data
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Category: Qualitative
52
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45) An economist has data showing household income and energy consumption for 10 000
Canadian households. The best way to illustrate these data is
A) a time-series line graph.
B) a cross-sectional bar-chart graph.
C) a scatter diagram.
D) a logarithmic scale diagram.
E) a time-series bar chart diagram.
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3b. graphing economic data
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Category: Qualitative
46) What is the best way to display the unemployment rate in each of the world’s developed
economies in 2018?
A) a time series line graph
B) a scatter diagram
C) a scatter diagram with two variables
D) a cross-sectional graph with time-series data
E) a cross-sectional bar chart graph
Answer: E
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3b. graphing economic data
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Category: Qualitative
47) You have collected data over the summer on the hours of exposure to sunlight received by
100 tomato plants and the number of tomatoes that grow on each plant. What is the best way to
display this data and the relationship between these two variables?
A) time series line graph
B) a cross-sectional bar chart graph
C) scatter diagram
D) time series bar chart
E) cross-sectional line graph
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3b. graphing economic data
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Category: Qualitative
53
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
48) An economist has data showing average apartment rental rates in different Canadian cities in
2019. The best way to illustrate these data is
A) a line graph.
B) a scatter diagram.
C) a time-series line graph.
D) a cross-sectional bar graph.
E) a scatter plot.
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3b. graphing economic data
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Category: Qualitative
49) An economist has data showing Canadian disposable income and consumption spending for
the years 1960-2018. The best way to illustrate these data is
A) a pair of time-series line graphs.
B) a separate scatter diagram for each variable.
C) a cross-sectional graph with time series data.
D) a cross-sectional bar chart graph.
E) a logarithmic scale diagram.
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3b. graphing economic data
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Category: Qualitative
50) Data collected repeatedly over successive periods of time are called
A) cross-sectional data.
B) time-analysis data.
C) logarithmic data.
D) topographic data.
E) time-series data.
Answer: E
Diff: 1
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3b. graphing economic data
Skill: Recall
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Category: Qualitative
54
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
51) Data collected of several variables but for the same time period are called
A) cross-sectional data.
B) time-analysis data.
C) logarithmic data.
D) topographic data.
E) time-series data.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3b. graphing economic data
Skill: Recall
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Category: Qualitative
52) A scatter diagram
A) is a graph of a theoretical relationship between two variables.
B) relates cross-sectional data only.
C) relates time series data only.
D) plots a series of observations, showing the relationship between two variables.
E) shows the dependence of one variable on another.
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Type: MC
Topic: 2.3b. graphing economic data
Skill: Recall
Learning Obj.: 2-4 Identify several types of economic data, including index numbers,
timeโseries and crossโsectional data, and scatter diagrams.
Category: Qualitative
2.4 Graphing Economics Theories
1) When it is said that variable A depends on variable B, then A is
A) a derivative of B.
B) proportional to B.
C) partially exclusive of B.
D) a function of B.
E) independent of B.
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4a. functional relations
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Category: Qualitative
55
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
2) Consider the following equation: Y = 10 + 5X – X2. This equation is an expression of
A) a functional relation between X and Y.
B) two dependent variables in a functional relation.
C) two independent variables in a functional relation.
D) a functional relation in a schedule format.
E) a functional relation in a verbal format.
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4a. functional relations
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Category: Quantitative
3) When considering how a family’s level of consumption changes in response to changes in its
income,
A) income is the dependent variable and family consumption is the independent variable.
B) consumption is the dependent variable and income is the independent variable.
C) both of the variables are independent.
D) both of the variables are dependent.
E) there is no relationship between the variables.
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4a. functional relations
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Category: Qualitative
4) The mathematical expression of a relationship between two or more variables is usually
known as
A) a definition.
B) an assumption.
C) an observation.
D) a function.
E) a theory.
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4a. functional relations
Skill: Recall
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Category: Qualitative
56
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
5) The statement “Y is a function of X” means that the
A) value of Y depends on that of X.
B) value of X depends on that of Y.
C) values of Y and X are the same.
D) values of Y and X are independent.
E) values of Y and X are related to some third variable.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4a. functional relations
Skill: Recall
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Category: Qualitative
6) When an increase in one variable is associated with an increase in a second variable, the two
variables are
A) proportionally related.
B) inversely proportionally related.
C) positively related.
D) equivalent.
E) negatively related.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4a. functional relations
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Category: Qualitative
7) When an increase in one variable is associated with a decrease in a second variable, the two
variables are
A) proportionally related.
B) inversely proportionally related.
C) positively related.
D) equivalent.
E) negatively related.
Answer: E
Diff: 1
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4a. functional relations
Skill: Recall
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Category: Qualitative
57
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
8) Negatively related variables change such that as the value of one variable
A) decreases, the value of the other variable remains the same.
B) increases, the value of the other variable increases.
C) increases, the value of the other variable remains the same.
D) decreases, the value of the other variable decreases.
E) increases, the value of the other decreases.
Answer: E
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4a. functional relations
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Category: Qualitative
9) Positively related variables change such that as the value of one variable
A) decreases, the value of the other variable increases.
B) decreases, the value of the other variable decreases.
C) decreases, the value of the other variable remains the same.
D) increases, the value of the other variable decreases.
E) increases, the value of the other variable remains the same.
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4a. functional relations
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Category: Qualitative
10) Suppose we observe that consumption of electricity decreases when the price of electricity
rises. We can say that the two variables are related
A) positively.
B) linearly.
C) negatively.
D) non-linearly.
E) exogenously.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4a. functional relations
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Category: Qualitative
58
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
11) Consider the functional relationship between two variables, X and Y. If Y is an increasing
function of X, then
A) Y increases when X increases.
B) Y increases when X decreases.
C) X decreases when Y increases.
D) Y decreases when X increases.
E) X remains constant as Y increases.
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4a. functional relations
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Category: Qualitative
12) The slope of a straight line is necessarily
A) zero.
B) constant.
C) positive.
D) negative.
E) increasing as one moves up the line.
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4b. graphing linear functions
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Category: Qualitative
13) On a coordinate graph with y on the vertical axis and x on the horizontal axis, suppose that
two points on a straight line are (X = 4, Y = 5), and (X = 2, Y = 1). The slope of this line is
A) -2.
B) – .
C) .
D) .
E) 2.
Answer: E
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4b. graphing linear functions
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Category: Quantitative
59
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
14) If the graph of a function is a horizontal line, the slope of this line is
A) undefined.
B) 0.
C) 1.
D) infinity.
E) -1.
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4b. graphing linear functions
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Category: Quantitative
15) On a coordinate graph with y on the vertical axis and x on the horizontal axis, what is the X
intercept of the function X = 60 + 3Y?
A) -20
B) 20
C) -60
D) 60
E) 0
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4b. graphing linear functions
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Category: Quantitative
16) On a coordinate graph with y on the vertical axis and x on the horizontal axis, what is the Y
intercept of the function X = 60 + 3Y?
A) -20
B) 0.1
C) 3.0
D) 20
E) 60
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4b. graphing linear functions
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Category: Quantitative
60
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
17) On a coordinate graph with y on the vertical axis and x on the horizontal axis, suppose point
A represents coordinates (X = 5, Y = 6) and point B represents coordinates (X = 2, Y = 3). Then
the slope of the straight line joining points A and B is
A) -1.
B) 2/3.
C) 5/6.
D) 1.
E) 3/2.
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4b. graphing linear functions
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Category: Quantitative
18) The slope of a curve is
A) always positive.
B) always negative.
C) positive if the curve rises to the right.
D) negative if the curve rises to the right.
E) always constant.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4b. graphing linear functions
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Category: Quantitative
19) On a coordinate graph with y on the vertical axis and x on the horizontal axis, consider the
line which is the graph of the function Y = 60 – 4X. The slope of this line is
A) 4.
B) 60.
C) -2.5.
D) -4.0.
E) -40.
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4b. graphing linear functions
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Category: Quantitative
61
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
20) In a co-ordinate graph, with Y on the vertical axis and X on the horizontal axis, the variable
X is positive and the variable Y is negative in the ________ quadrant.
A) top, right
B) top, left
C) bottom, left
D) bottom, right
E) any of the above
Answer: D
Diff: 2 Type: MC
Topic: 2.4b. graphing linear functions
Skill: Recall
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Category: Qualitative
21) In a co-ordinate graph with Y on the vertical axis and X on the horizontal axis, the variable X
is negative and the variable Y is negative in the ________quadrant.
A) top, right
B) top, left
C) bottom, right
D) bottom, left
E) any of the above
Answer: D
Diff: 3 Type: MC
Topic: 2.4b. graphing linear functions
Skill: Recall
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Category: Qualitative
22) In a co-ordinate graph with Y on the vertical axis and X on the horizontal axis, the variable X
is positive and the variable Y is positive in the ________quadrant.
A) top, right
B) top, left
C) bottom, right
D) bottom, left
E) any of the above
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4b. graphing linear functions
Skill: Recall
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Category: Qualitative
62
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
23) On a coordinate graph with y on the vertical axis and x on the horizontal axis, suppose point
A represents co-ordinates (X = 10, Y = 12) and point B represents co-ordinates (X = 5, Y = 7).
The slope of the straight line joining points A and B is
A) -1.
B) 1.
C) 2/3.
D) 3/2.
E) 5/6.
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4b. graphing linear functions
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Category: Quantitative
24) On a coordinate graph with y on the vertical axis and x on the horizontal axis, suppose point
A represents coordinates (X = 2, Y = 12) and point B represents coordinates (X = 6, Y = 4). The
slope of the straight line joining points A and B is
A) 5.
B) – .
C) .
D) -2.
E) 2.
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4b. graphing linear functions
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Category: Quantitative
63
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
25)
FIGURE 2-1
Refer to Figure 2-1. What is the slope of the line in part (i) of the figure?
A) -10
B) 5
C) -5
D) -1
E) 1
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4b. graphing linear functions
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Graphics: Graph
Category: Quantitative
64
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
26)
FIGURE 2-1
Refer to Figure 2-1. What is the slope of the line in part (ii) of the figure?
A) 12.5
B) -12.5
C) 1
D) 0.05
E) 0.08
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4b. graphing linear functions
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Graphics: Graph
Category: Quantitative
65
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
27) On a coordinate graph with y on the vertical axis and x on the horizontal axis, suppose point
A represents co-ordinates (x = 2, y = 16) and point B represents coordinates (x = 10, y = 4).
What is the slope of the straight line joining points A and B?
A) 0.75
B) -0.75
C) 1.5
D) -1.5
E) -0.43
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4b. graphing linear functions
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Category: Quantitative
28) Suppose Ahmoud would spend $1200 per year on travel, even if his annual income were
zero. As his income rises, he would spend 20% of each additional dollar of income on travel.
Choose the correct mathematical equation that describes the functional relation between his
travel spending (T) and his income (Y).
A) Y = 1200 + 0.2T
B) Y = 1200 – 0.2T
C) T = 0.2 + 1200Y
D) T = 1200 + 0.8Y
E) T = 1200 + 0.2Y
Answer: E
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4b. graphing linear functions
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Category: Quantitative
66
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
29) Suppose Jillian will spend $250 on books per year, even if her income is zero. As her income
rises, she will spend 8% of each additional dollar of income on books. Choose the correct
mathematical equation that describes the functional relation between her spending on books (B)
and her income (Y).
A) Y = 250 – 0.02 Y
B) Y = 250 – 8Y
C) B = 250 + 0.08 Y
D) B = 250 + 0.02Y
E) B = 250 + 0.2Y
Answer: C
Diff: 3 Type: MC
Topic: 2.4b. graphing linear functions
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Category: Quantitative
30) Suppose that over a 12-month period, Sonali’s income (Y) rises from $27 000 to $35 000 per
year and, as a result, her spending on travel (T) increases from $1500 to $2500 per year. Assume
there is a linear relation between the two variables, Y and T. What is the marginal response in T
to a change in Y?
A) 8
B) 4
C) 0
D) 0.25
E) 0.125
Answer: E
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4b. graphing linear functions
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Category: Quantitative
67
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
31) Suppose there is a linear relationship between national income and total tax revenue. If
national income is $100 million, then $25 million is collected as tax revenue . If national income
is $200 million, then $40 million is collected in tax revenue. What is the marginal response in
tax revenue to a change in national income?
A) 15 million
B) 0.15 million
C) 15
D) 0.15
E) -15
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4b. graphing linear functions
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Category: Quantitative
32) Suppose there is a linear relationship between the ticket price (P) to a university basketball
game and the number of tickets sold (Q). If the ticket price is $20, then 600 tickets are sold; if the
ticket price is $8, then 3000 tickets are sold. What is the slope of the function if Q is plotted on
the horizontal axis and P is plotted on the vertical axis?
A) -0.005
B) -0.05
C) 0
D) 0.05
E) 0.005
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4b. graphing linear functions
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Category: Quantitative
68
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
33) Suppose there is a linear relationship between the number of hours per day that Michael
spends on social media and his average grade. If Michael spends one hour per day on social
media, his average grade is 90; if he spends 9 hours per day his average grade is 40. What is the
slope of the function if hours on social media is plotted on the horizontal axis and grade is
plotted on the vertical axis?
A) -2.25
B) 2.25
C) -6.25
D) 6.25
E) 0
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4b. graphing linear functions
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Category: Quantitative
69
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
34)
FIGURE 2-2
Refer to Figure 2-2. The slope of curve A is
A) positive and constant.
B) negative and constant.
C) positive and changing.
D) negative and changing.
E) undefined.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4b. graphing linear functions
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Graphics: Graph
Category: Qualitative
70
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
35)
FIGURE 2-2
Refer to Figure 2-2. The slope of curve B is
A) positive and constant.
B) negative and constant.
C) positive and changing.
D) negative and changing.
E) undefined.
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4b. graphing linear functions
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Graphics: Graph
Category: Qualitative
71
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
36)
FIGURE 2-2
Refer to Figure 2-2. The slope of curve C is
A) positive and constant.
B) negative and constant.
C) positive and changing.
D) negative and changing.
E) impossible to describe.
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4c. graphing non-linear functions
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Graphics: Graph
Category: Qualitative
72
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
37)
FIGURE 2-2
Refer to Figure 2-2. The slope of curve D is
A) positive and constant.
B) negative and constant.
C) positive and changing.
D) negative and changing.
E) undefined.
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4c. graphing non-linear functions
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Graphics: Graph
Category: Qualitative
73
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
38)
FIGURE 2-3
Refer to Figure 2-3. The slope of curve A is
A) zero.
B) negative and variable.
C) positive and variable.
D) positive from X1 to X2 and negative from X2 to X3.
E) negative from X1 to X2 and positive from X2 to X3.
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4c. graphing non-linear functions
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Graphics: Graph
Category: Qualitative
74
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
39)
FIGURE 2-3
Refer to Figure 2-3. The slope of curve B is
A) zero at X2.
B) always negative but variable.
C) always positive but variable.
D) undefined at X2.
E) positive from Y1 to Y2 and negative between Y2 and Y3.
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4c. graphing non-linear functions
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Graphics: Graph
Category: Qualitative
75
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
40)
FIGURE 2-3
Refer to Figure 2-3. At X2 on curve A, the
A) maximum occurs at Y1.
B) minimum occurs at Y4.
C) slope of the curve is zero.
D) slope is increasing.
E) slope is decreasing.
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4c. graphing non-linear functions
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Graphics: Graph
Category: Qualitative
76
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
41)
FIGURE 2-3
Refer to Figure 2-3. On curve A, the maximum value of Y occurs at
A) values of X greater than X3.
B) X3.
C) X2.
D) X1.
E) X = 0.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4c. graphing non-linear functions
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Graphics: Graph
Category: Qualitative
77
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
42)
FIGURE 2-3
Refer to Figure 2-3. At X2 on curve B, the
A) maximum occurs at Y1.
B) minimum occurs at Y4.
C) slope of the curve is zero.
D) slope is increasing.
E) slope is decreasing.
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4c. graphing non-linear functions
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Graphics: Graph
Category: Qualitative
78
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
43) At the minimum or the maximum of the graph of a non-linear function (with x on the
horizontal axis and y on the vertical axis) the slope of the curve is
A) 1.
B) -1.
C) 0.
D) infinite.
E) undefined.
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4c. graphing non-linear functions
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Category: Quantitative
44) At the minimum or the maximum of the graph of a non-linear function (with x on the
horizontal axis and y on the vertical axis) the marginal response of y to a small change in x is
A) 1.
B) -1.
C) 0.
D) infinite.
E) undefined.
Answer: C
Diff: 3 Type: MC
Topic: 2.4c. graphing non-linear functions
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Category: Quantitative
79
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
45)
FIGURE 2-4
Refer to Figure 2-4. This non-linear function shows that over the range shown,
A) as more fertilizer is applied, the marginal response in yield is increasing
B) as more fertilizer is applied, the marginal change in yield is diminishing.
C) as the yield per acre increases, the amount of fertilizer required per acre is diminishing.
D) as the yield per acre increases, the amount of fertilizer required per acre is increasing.
E) as more fertilizer is applied, the total yield per acre is diminishing.
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4c. graphing non-linear functions
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Graphics: Graph
Category: Qualitative
80
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
46)
FIGURE 2-4
Refer to Figure 2-4. The functional relation shown between fertilizer applied and wheat yield can
be described as a
A) constant marginal response.
B) increasing partial response.
C) decreasing total response.
D) diminishing marginal response.
E) increasing marginal response.
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4c. graphing non-linear functions
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Graphics: Graph
Category: Qualitative
81
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
47)
FIGURE 2-4
Refer to Figure 2-4. The slope of the non-linear function changes as we move along the curve.
The slope is
A) positive and increasing, indicating an increasing marginal response.
B) negative and decreasing, indicating a diminishing marginal response.
C) positive and decreasing, indicating a diminishing marginal response.
D) negative and increasing, indicating an increasing marginal response.
E) constant at all points, indicating a constant marginal response.
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4c. graphing non-linear functions
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Graphics: Graph
Category: Qualitative
82
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
48)
FIGURE 2-4
Refer to Figure 2-4. If we want to know the marginal response of “yield per acre” due to a
change in “fertilizer applied per acre of wheat” at point B, then we should determine the
A) slope of a straight line tangent to point B.
B) slope of a straight line joining points B and C.
C) yield per acre at 30 units of fertilizer.
D) the slope of a straight line from the origin to point B.
E) quantity of fertilizer applied at point B.
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4c. graphing non-linear functions
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Graphics: Graph
Category: Qualitative
83
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
49)
FIGURE 2-4
Refer to Figure 2-4. Suppose we draw a straight line tangent to point B of the non-linear
function. The straight line has a slope of 0.075. What information is conveyed to us by this
measurement?
A) At point B, the marginal response to the application of 30 units of fertilizer per acre is 0.075
tonnes of wheat.
B) At point B, if one additional unit of fertilizer is applied per acre, the marginal response is
0.075 tonnes of wheat per acre.
C) Because point B is midway between point A and point C, the yield per acre is 0.075 tonnes of
wheat when fertilizer applied is between 10 and 60 units per acre.
D) At point B, when fertilizer is applied at a rate of 30 units per acre, the yield is 0.075 tonnes
per acre.
E) At point B, the marginal response to the application of 0.075 units of fertilizer is between 4
and 5 tonnes per acre.
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4c. graphing non-linear functions
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Graphics: Graph
Category: Quantitative
84
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
50) Figure 2-5 shows monthly average (per unit) production costs for producing Good X.
FIGURE 2-5
Refer to Figure 2-5. What is the slope of this non-linear function when 200 units per month are
being produced?
A) 4
B) -4
C) 0.25
D) -5.2
E) -0.25
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4c. graphing non-linear functions
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Graphics: Graph
Category: Quantitative
85
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
51) Figure 2-5 shows monthly average (per unit) production costs for producing Good X.
FIGURE 2-5
Refer to Figure 2-5. What is the slope of this non-linear function when 600 units per month are
being produced?
A) -2
B) 4
C) -4
D) 1
E) -1
Answer: E
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4b. graphing linear functions
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Graphics: Graph
Category: Quantitative
86
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.
52) Figure 2-5 shows monthly average (per unit) production costs for producing Good X.
FIGURE 2-5
Refer to Figure 2-5. What is the slope of this non-linear function when 1200 units per month are
being produced?
A) 0.25
B) -0.25
C) 4
D) -4
E) -2
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Type: MC
Topic: 2.4b. graphing linear functions
Skill: Applied
Learning Obj.: 2-5 Recognize the slope of a line on a graph relating two variables as the
“marginal response” of one variable to a change in the other.
Graphics: Graph
Category: Quantitative
87
Copyright ยฉ 2020 Pearson Canada Inc.

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