# Test Bank for Genetic Analysis: An Integrated Approach Plus Mastering Genetics, 2nd Edition

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Genetics: An Integrated Approach (Sanders)
Chapter 2 Transmission Genetics
2.1 Multiple-Choice Questions
1) Mendel performed many types of crosses, including those in which the same genotypes are crossed
but the sexes of the parents are switched. These are known as __________.
A) replicate crosses
B) reciprocal crosses
C) test crosses
D) monohybrid crosses
E) dihybrid crosses
Answer: B
Section: 2.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
2) Crosses in which F1 plants heterozygous for a given allele are crossed to generate a 3:1 phenotypic
ratio in the F2 generation are known as __________.
A) replicate crosses
B) reciprocal crosses
C) test crosses
D) monohybrid crosses
E) dihybrid crosses
Answer: D
Section: 2.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
3) In peas, the round allele is dominant over the wrinkled allele. A plant with round peas was crossed
to a plant with wrinkled peas and all of the resulting plants had round peas. What is the genotype of
the parents in this cross?
A) RR ร rr
B) RR ร Rr
C) Rr ร rr
D) Rr ร Rr
E) rr ร rr
Answer: A
Section: 2.2
Skill: Application/Analysis
4) The blending theory would predict that the phenotype seen in the F1 generation from a cross
between a pure breeding plant with dark purple flowers and a pure breeding plant with white
flowers would be __________.
A) dark purple
B) light purple
C) white
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D) a 3:1 ratio of purple to white flowers
E) a 1:1 ratio of purple to white flowers
Answer: B
Section: 2.1
Skill: Application/Analysis
5) In peas, the yellow allele is dominant over the green allele. A plant with yellow peas was crossed to
a plant with green peas. The resulting plants were 50% yellow and 50% green. What is the genotype
of the parents in this cross?
A) YY ร yy
B) YY ร Yy
C) Yy ร yy
D) Yy ร Yy
E) yy ร yy
Answer: C
Section: 2.2
Skill: Application/Analysis
6) Assuming independent assortment, what phenotypic ratio would you expect to see if an individual
with the genotype RrGg is self-crossed?
A) 1:3
B) 9:3:3:1
C) 1:2:1
D) 1:3:2:1
E) 3:1
Answer: B
Section: 2.3
Skill: Application/Analysis
7) What genotypic ratio would you expect to see among the progeny of a monohybrid cross?
A) 1:3
B) 9:3:3:1
C) 1:2:1
D) 1:3:2:1
E) 3:1
Answer: C
Section: 2.2
Skill: Application/Analysis
8) A couple has four children. What is the probability that they have four boys?
A) 1/2
B) 1/4
C) 1/8
D) 1/16
E) 1/32
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Answer: D
Section: 2.4
Skill: Application/Analysis
9) Humans have a gene, T, that is involved in muscle formation of the tongue. Individuals
homozygous for one allele can roll their tongues, while individuals homozygous for the other allele
cannot. If both parents can roll their tongues, but their child cannot, what can be said about the
mode of inheritance?
A) Tongue rolling is dominant.
B) Tongue rolling is recessive.
C) The parents were both homozygous, but the child was heterozygous.
D) Tongue rolling is dominant, and both parents were heterozygous (Tt).
E) Tongue rolling is recessive, and both parents were heterozygous (Tt).
Answer: D
Section: 2.6
Skill: Synthesis/Evaluation
10) In peas, axial (A) flower position is dominant to terminal (a), tall (L) is dominant to short (l), and
yellow (Y) is dominant to green (y). If a plant that is heterozygous for all three traits is allowed to
self-fertilize, how many of the offspring would show the dominant phenotype for all three traits?
A) 3/64
B) 9/64
C) 27/64
D) 32/64
E) 64/64
Answer: C
Section: 2.3
Skill: Application/Analysis
11) In peas, axial (A) flower position is dominant to terminal (a), and tall (L) is dominant to short (l).
If a plant that is heterozygous for both traits is allowed to self-fertilize, how many of the offspring
would also be heterozygous for both traits?
A) 9/16
B) 1/4
C) 3/16
D) 1/8
E) 1/16
Answer: B
Section: 2.3
Skill: Application/Analysis
12) The law of segregation would predict that the F2 progeny of F1 heterozygous plants will exhibit a
__________.
A) 3:1 phenotypic ratio
B) 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio
C) 1:2:1 genotypic ratio
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D) 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio and 1:2:1 genotypic ratio
E) 3:1 phenotypic ratio and 1:2:1 genotypic ratio
Answer: E
Section: 2.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
13) The law of independent assortment would predict that the F2 progeny of F1 heterozygous plants will
exhibit a __________.
A) 3:1 phenotypic ratio
B) 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio
C) 1:2:1 genotypic ratio
D) 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio and 1:2:1 genotypic ratio
E) 3:1 phenotypic ratio and 1:2:1 genotypic ratio
Answer: B
Section: 2.3
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
14) What phenotypic ratio would you expect as a result of a test cross between a dihybrid organism and
one that is homozygous recessive for alleles at two independent loci?
A) 3:1
B) 1:2:1
C) 1:1:1:1
D) 9:3:3:1
E) 9:4:2:1
Answer: C
Section: 2.3
Skill: Application/Analysis
15) How many different types of gametes can be produced by a short plant with yellow, round peas
with a heterozygous genotype (YyRrSs)?
A) 3
B) 6
C) 8
D) 10
E) 12
Answer: C
Section: 2.3
Skill: Application/Analysis
16) By convention, when an observed experimental outcome has a probability of occurrence of less than
5% (<0.05), the experimental results are considered to be __________.
A) within normal expected range
B) statistically significant and different from the expected outcome
C) not significant
D) less than one standard deviation from the mean
E) equal to the mean
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Answer: B
Section: 2.5
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
17) The statistical interpretation of a chi-square value is determined by identifying the __________.
A) mean
B) degrees of freedom
C) average
D) P value
E) joint probability
Answer: D
Section: 2.5
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
18) The P value is a quantitative expression of the probability that the results of another experiment of
the same size and structure will deviate from expected results as much as or more than by chance.
The greater the difference between observed and expected results of an experiment, __________.
A) the lower the ฯ2 value and the lower the P value
B) the greater the ฯ2 value and the greater the P value
C) the greater the ฯ2 value and the lower the P value
D) the lower the ฯ2 value and the greater the P value
E) the greater the ฯ2 value; but the P value is unaffected
Answer: C
Section: 2.5
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
19) The statistical interpretation of a ฯ2 value is determined by identifying the P value for each
experiment, and the P value is dependent on the number of degrees of freedom (df) in the
experiment being examined. For a coin flip experiment, the df value is equal to 1. You perform an
experiment to determine how many times out of 100 die rolls that you roll a โ1โ in a single roll.
What would the df value be equal to?
A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4
E) 5
Answer: E
Section: 2.5
Skill: Application/Analysis
20) The genes responsible for some of the traits that Mendel observed have been recently identified and
have helped in determining how molecular variation produces morphologic variation in pea plants.
Allelic variation in the Sbe1 gene, which produces starch-branching enzyme 1, is responsible for
which trait in peas?
A) round and wrinkled pea shape
B) yellow and green pea color
C) purple and white flowers
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D) tall and short plant height
E) axial and terminal flower position
Answer: A
Section: 2.6
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
21) In 1997, a gene called Le was discovered by two research groups led by David Martin and Diane
Lester. Allelic variation in the Le gene, which controls elongation of the plant stem between
branches, is responsible for which trait in peas?
A) inflated and constricted pod shape
B) yellow and green pod color
C) purple and white flowers
D) tall and short plant height
E) axial and terminal flower position
Answer: D
Section: 2.6
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
22) The gene L determines hair length in rabbits. The gene B determines hair color. A rabbit with long,
black hair is crossed to a rabbit with short, white hair. All the offspring have long, black hair. What
are the genotypes of the parents?
A) LLBB ร llbb
B) LlBb ร LlBb
C) LlBb ร llbb
D) Llbb ร llBb
E) Impossible to determine from the information given
Answer: A
Section: 2.3
Skill: Application/Analysis
23) In rabbits, long hair and black fur are produced by the dominant alleles L and B, which assort
independently. The genotype ll produces short hair and the genotype bb produces white fur. A cross
between a male with short, black fur and a female with long, white fur produces four offspring with
short, black fur, four offspring with long, white fur, four offspring with short, white fur, and four
offspring with long, black fur. What are the genotypes of the parents?
A) llBB ร LLbb
B) LlBb ร LlBb
C) llBb ร Llbb
D) LLBB ร llbb
E) Impossible to determine from the information given.
Answer: C
Section: 2.3
Skill: Application/Analysis
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24) You count 1000 F2 seeds from a monohybrid cross. How many do you expect to display the
dominant phenotype?
A) 1000
B) 750
C) 500
D) 250
E) 0
Answer: B
Section: 2.5
Skill: Application/Analysis
25) In the accompanying figure, the chance that individual III-2 is a heterozygous carrier is
__________.
A) 0%
B) 25%
C) 50%
D) 75%
E) 100%
Answer: E
Section: 2.6
Skill: Application /Analysis
26) In the accompanying figure, the chance that individual IV-7 is a heterozygous carrier is
__________.
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A) 1/4
B) 1/3
C) 1/2
D) 2/3
E) 3/4
Answer: D
Section: 2.6
Skill: Application/Analysis
2.2 Short-Answer Questions
1) Mendel performed numerous controlled genetic crosses to obtain strains that consistently produced
a single phenotype without variation. What are these strains that consistently produce the same
phenotype called?
Answer: pure-breeding or true-breeding strains
Section: 2.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
2) In a test cross, a pure-breeding plant is crossed with a plant suspected to be heterozygous (Aa).
What is the genotype of the pure-breeding plant?
Answer: aa
Section: 2.1
Skill: Application/Analysis
3) Why did Mendel cut off the nascent anthers during the process of artificial cross-fertilization?
Answer: to prevent self-fertilization or to prevent uncontrolled crosses
Section: 2.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
4) What simple type of cross that investigates the inheritance of only one trait could be used to
illustrate Mendelโs law of segregation?
Answer: monohybrid cross
Section: 2.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
5) If an affected individual is born to parents who are unaffected, what is the likely mode of
inheritance?
Answer: autosomal recessive
Section: 2.6
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
6) What type of cross would be used to illustrate Mendelโs law of independent assortment?
Answer: dihybrid cross (or test cross)
Section: 2.3
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
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7) A cross between a short pea plant and a tall pea plant results in a 1:1 genotypic and phenotypic ratio
in the offspring. What are the genotypes of the parent plants?
Answer: Ss ร ss (heterozygous ร homozygous recessive)
Section: 2.2
Skill: Application/Analysis
8) What is the probability of rolling one six-sided die and obtaining a 1 or a 2?
Answer: 1/6 + 1/6 = 2/6 = 1/3
Section: 2.4
Skill: Application/Analysis
9) What is the probability of rolling one six-sided die and obtaining any number but 6?
Answer: 1 โ 1/6 = 5/6
Section: 2.4
Skill: Application/Analysis
10) What is the probability of rolling two six-sided dice and obtaining two 4โs?
Answer: 1/6 ร 1/6 = 1/36
Section: 2.4
Skill: Application/Analysis
11) What is the probability of rolling two six-sided dice and obtaining at least one 3?
Answer: Probability of die 1 being a 3 and die 2 not: 1/6 ร 5/6 = 5/36
Probability of die 2 being a 3 and die 1 not: 1/6 ร 5/6 = 5/36
Probability of die 1 and 2 being a 3: 1/6 ร 1/6 = 1/36
Probability of any of these possibilities = addition rule: 5/36 + 5/36 + 1/6 = 11/36
Section: 2.4
Skill: Application/Analysis
12) What is the probability of rolling two six-sided dice and obtaining an odd number on at least one
die?
Answer: 9/36 + 9/36 + 9/36 = 27/36 = 3/4
Probability of rolling odd number the first die only = 3/6 (odd) ร 3/6 (even) = 9/36
Probability of rolling odd number the second die only = 3/6 (even) ร 3/6 (odd) = 9/36
Probability of rolling odd number both dice = 3/6 (odd) ร 3/6 (odd) = 9/36
Probability of any one of these three possible scenarios = addition rule
Section: 2.4
Skill: Application/Analysis
13) When calculating the probability of a given genotype in a trihybrid cross, you can generate a
Punnett square. Which of the rules of probability can be used to calculate the joint probability of
simultaneous inheritance of multiple alleles?
Answer: the product rule
Section: 2.4
Skill: Synthesis/Evaluation
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14) In a cross between individuals who are both heterozygous (carriers) for a recessive disease such as
albinism, you would like to determine the risk of one or more children to inherit the recessive
phenotype. Which of the rules of probability can be used to calculate the probability of a particular
combination of events that each have two alternative outcomes?
Answer: binomial probability
Section: 2.4
Skill: Synthesis/Evaluation
15) You have self-fertilized a plant with round seeds that is heterozygous, and you want to determine
what proportion of the offspring will be not only dominant, but also true-breeding. Which of the
rules of probability can be used to calculate the probability of obtaining a particular outcome when
specific information about that outcome modifies the probability calculation?
Answer: conditional probability
Section: 2.4
Skill: Synthesis/Evaluation
16) In a dihybrid cross, you want to calculate the probability that an F2 progeny of the cross will inherit
both dominant phenotypes. Which of the rules of probability can be used to calculate the probability
of obtaining that combination of alleles?
Answer: the product rule
Section: 2.4
Skill: Synthesis/Evaluation
17) The statistical value obtained from a chi-square analysis refers to the probability that the deviations
between the observed numbers and the expected numbers are caused by what?
Answer: random chance
Section: 2.5
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
18) A normal distribution curve contains all the possible experimental outcomes in graph form. The tall
central segment of the curve represents the outcomes with the highest probability of occurrence.
The average outcome, represented by the center of the data distribution, is known as what?
Answer: the mean (ยต)
Section: 2.5
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
19) Geneticists must be able to compare the outcomes they obtain in their experiments to the outcomes
that might be expected to occur. Which test would they use to confirm that the difference between
observed and expected outcomes can be attributed to chance?
Answer: chi-square test
Section: 2.5
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
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2.3 Fill-in-the-Blank Questions
1) One key to Mendelโs success was choosing to observe ________ traits, which exhibit one of two
possible phenotypes.
Answer: dichotomous
Section: 2.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
2) The hereditary particles that are passed from one generation are called alleles in modern
terminology. This term had not been invented in Mendelโs time; instead, he determined that two
โ________โ (alleles) were present for each trait in a plant and together determined the phenotype
of the trait.
Answer: elementen
Section: 2.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
3) A ratio of 9:3:3:1 is expected among the F2 progeny of a dihybrid cross as a result of ________ of
alleles at two loci.
Answer: independent assortment
Section: 2.3
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
4) Binomial expansion is a complex genetic calculation requiring repetition and precision in the use of
the product rule and the sum rule. A shortcut called ________ eliminates the need for these
repetitive calculations and can be used for any number of expansions between 0 and the nth power
to yield the size of each possible class and the total number of classes possible.
Answer: Pascalโs triangle
Section: 2.4
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
5) The P value is dependent on the number of ________, which is equal to the number of independent
variables in an experiment.
Answer: degrees of freedom (df)
Section: 2.5
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
2.4 Essay Questions
1) How did the study of physics with Professors Doppler and Ettinghausen influence Mendelโs
understanding of genetics?
Answer: Doppler, an experimental physicist famous for the Doppler effect, espoused a
โparticulateโ view of physics and taught Mendel how to separate individual characteristics from one
another in experiments. Professor Ettinghausen taught Mendel the mathematics of combinatorial
analysis. Mendel would apply each of these lessons to his later research. Mendelโs superior insight
came principally from his familiarity with quantitative thinking and his understanding of the
particulate nature of matter learned through the study of physics with Doppler. Central to Mendelโs
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experimental success was counting the number of progeny with specific phenotypes. This logical
and now routine component of data-gathering was the key to Mendelโs ability to formulate the
hypotheses that explained his results. Under Doppler and Ettinghausen, Mendel learned to study
individual properties of matter separately and to think in quantitative terms about combinations of
outcomes.
Section: 2.1
Skill: Synthesis/Evaluation
2) Describe the traits that make Pisum sativum an ideal organism for genetic studies. Why did Mendel
ultimately decide not to include exterior seed coat color (gray vs. white) as one of the traits he
analyzed?
Answer: There are many varieties of peas with distinct, heritable features in the form of
dichotomous phenotypes that can be easily observed and quantified. In addition, mating of plants
can be closely controlled. Since each pea plant has both sperm-producing (stamens) and eggproducing (carpels) organs, they can be self-crossed to generate true-breeding plants. After creating
these true-breeding plants, Mendel could test for dominant or recessive inheritance patterns by
cross-pollination (fertilization between different plants). Mendel initially selected an eighth trait
producing either gray or white exterior seed coats. Early in his analysis, he saw that plants with
purple flowers always had gray seed coats and that those with white flowers always had white seed
coats. He speculated that flower color and seed-coat color were determined by the same genetic
mechanism, and he was correct. (The pigment anthocyanin is produced by plants that have purple
flower color and gray seed coats, but a mutation eliminates anthocyanin production in plants with
white flowers and white seed coats.)
Section: 2.1
Skill: Synthesis/Evaluation
3) Describe the blending theory of heredity and how Mendelโs results help to reject this theory.
Answer: The blending theory viewed the traits of progeny as a mixture of the characteristics
possessed by the two parental forms. Under this theory, progeny were believed to display
characteristics that were approximately intermediate between those of the parents. Mendel reasoned
that if the blending theory were true, he would see evidence of it in each trait. If no blending were
seen in individual traits, the blending theory would be disproved. F1 experimental results reject the
blending theory of heredity because all F1 progeny have the same phenotype (i.e., the dominant
phenotype) that is indistinguishable from the phenotype of one of the pure-breeding parents. This
specifically contradicts the blending theory prediction that the F1 would display a mixture of the
parental phenotypes. The persistence of the dominant phenotype and the reemergence of the
recessive phenotype in the F2 also contradict the blending theory.
Section: 2.1
Skill: Synthesis/Evaluation
4) What are Mendelโs first and second laws, and what do they state?
Answer:
First Law: Law of SegregationโThe two alleles for each trait will separate from one another during
gamete formation, and each allele will have an equal probability (1/2) of inclusion in a gamete.
Random union of gametes at fertilization will unite one gamete from each parent to produce
progeny in ratios that are determined by chance.
Second Law: Law of Independent AssortmentโDuring gamete formation, the segregation of alleles
at one locus is independent of the segregation of alleles at another locus.
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Sections: 2.2 and 2.3
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
5) In Guinea pigs, short hair (S) is dominant over long hair (s), rough coat (R) is dominant over smooth
coat (r), and black hair (B) is dominant over white hair (b). List all the different possible gametes
that can be produced by each of the individuals below.
a. SSRRbb
b. ssRrBB
c. SsRrbb
d. SsRrBb
Answer:
a. SSRRbb: SRb
b. ssRrBB: sRB, srB
c. SsRrbb: SRb, Srb, sRb, srb
d. SsRrBb: SRB, SRb, SrB, Srb, sRB, sRb, srB, srb
Section: 2.3
Skill: Application/Analysis
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