# Test Bank For Environmental Economics and Management: Theory, Policy, and Applications, 6th Edition

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CHAPTER 2 Modeling the Market Process: A Review of the Basics TRUE-FALSE 1. Producersโ decisions are modeled through the demand function, and consumersโ decisions are captured by the supply function. Answer: 2. Two characteristics of a private good are rivalry in consumption and excludability. Answer: 3. F Equilibrium price is the price level at which QD equals QS. Answer: 10. T If QS = โ10 + ยฝ P, the slope of supply, when conventionally graphed, is +ยฝ . Answer: 9. F The supply curve is positively sloped because marginal cost (MC) rises with output (Q). Answer: 8. T Market demand for a private good is found by vertically summing individual demands. Answer: 7. T Conventionally, the graph of demand uses the inverse form of the demand function, which is P = f(QD). Answer: 6. F The demand price represents the consumerโs willingness to pay for the good. Answer: 5. T A change in price results in a shift in the demand curve. Answer: 4. F T If the price level is such that quantity supplied exceeds quantity demanded, there is excess demand, or a shortage in the market. Answer: F ยฉ 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Page 2-1 11. Cost-effectiveness requires that resources are allocated such that the additional benefits to society are equal to the additional costs. Answer: 12. Assume that the marginal revenue associated with the 12th unit of output is \$25 and the marginal cost is \$14. As a result, the firm should produce more, because the marginal profit at that output level is greater than zero. Answer: 13. F If a consumer is willing to pay more for a good than he/she actually must pay, he/she enjoys a gain for that unit of output known as consumer surplus. Answer: 20. F Consumer surplus is the net gain to the firm measured as the excess of price over the marginal cost of production summed over all units sold. Answer: 19. T If a firm maximizes output from a stock of available resources, it must be achieving allocative efficiency. Answer: 18. T If a market is perfectly competitive, allocative efficiency is achieved at the point where the profit-maximizing firm produces. Answer: 17. F The demand faced by the perfectly competitive firm is perfectly elastic, meaning that price and marginal revenue are equal. Answer: 16. T In perfect competition, the firm faces a perfectly inelastic demand. Answer: 15. T When a profit-maximizing firm increases output to Q = 50, its MR = \$100 and MC = \$124, meaning that total profit falls by \$24, so the firm should contract production. Answer: 14. F T The sum of the change in consumer surplus plus the change in producer surplus is called deadweight loss to society. Answer: T ยฉ 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Page 2-2 MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. A competitive market is characterized by a. b. c. d. the absence of entry barriers many buyers with a single seller imperfect information a differentiated product Answer: a. 2. If the market for a good or service is competitive, a. b. c. d. there are many independent buyers and sellers buyers and sellers have no control over price there are no entry barriers all of the above Answer: d. 3. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a private good? a. b. c. d. rivalry in consumption benefits of consumption are nonexcludable consumption of the good precludes consumption by another individual the benefits to a consumer of consuming the good are exclusive to that individual Answer: 4. a. b. c. d. e. b. According to the theory of demand, a change in the consumerโs income or wealth changes the entire demand relationship the consumerโs willingness to pay is also called the demand price demand price measures the marginal benefit (MB) of consuming another unit of the good a change in product price changes quantity demanded all of the above Answer: e. 5. Horizontal summing of individual demands yields a. b. c. d. the market demand for a private good the market supply of a private good the market demand for a public good the market supply of a public good Answer: a. ยฉ 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Page 2-3 6. If the demand for recycled plastic is specified as QD = 100 โ 2.5P, the slope of demand, as conventionally graphed, is a. โ2.5 b. Answer: b. โ0.4 c. +100 d. none of the above 7. If market demand for solar panels is specified as QD = 100 โ 2.5P, the vertical intercept of demand, as conventionally graphed, is a. +100 b. Answer: d. โ100 c. โ2.5 d. +40 8. If supply in the market for air filters is specified as QS = 24 + 3P, then, when conventionally graphed, a. b. c. d. the vertical intercept is +24 the slope of the supply curve is +3 the horizontal intercept is +3 none of the above Answer: d. 9. According to the Law of Supply, a. b. c. d. price and quantity supplied are positively related, c.p. firms produce less output as the price of the product rises, ceteris paribus marginal cost rises as the firm contracts production there is an inverse relationship between output and price, holding all else constant Answer: a. 10. The supply curve is positively sloped because a. b. c. d. e. profit levels always rise with output MC rises as Q rises, so firms must charge a higher P as Q increases as Q increases, TC rises proportionately faster than Q, so price must rise with output none of the above both b. and c. are correct Answer: e. ยฉ 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Page 2-4 11. Market supply for a private good is found by a. b. c. d. vertically summing all market prices for a given quantity horizontally summing the quantity decisions of producers at each and every price adding the price-quantity pairs for all units sold none of the above Answer: b. 12. Suppose that in the market for bottled water, the market supply is QS = 14 + 20P and the market demand is QD = 74 โ 10P, then equilibrium price is a. \$2 Answer: b. \$54 c. \$6 d. none of the above a. 13. Assume that in the market for bottled water, the market supply is QS = 14 + 20P and the market demand is QD = 74 โ 10P. This means that the equilibrium quantity is a. 2 Answer: b. 54 c. 6 d. none of the above b. 14. Assume that the market demand for organic tomatoes is modeled as QD = 104 โ 2P and market supply is QS = 20 + 4P. If the actual price is set at \$20 per pound, there is a _________ of _______ units of the good. a. b. surplus; surplus; 36 26 Answer: a. c. d. shortage; 10 none of the above 15. Allocative efficiency in a market means that resources are appropriated such that a. b. c. d. the additional social benefits outweigh the additional social costs the additional social benefits outweigh the additional private benefits the marginal social benefits are equal to the marginal social costs the marginal social benefits are greater than the marginal social costs Answer: c. 16. Marginal revenue is defined as a. b. the accumulated revenue associated with production ฮTR/ฮQ ยฉ 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Page 2-5 c. d. the change in profit associated with another unit of output produced ฮTC/ฮQ Answer: b. 17. Marginal cost is defined as a. ฮQ/ฮTC Answer: b. TC /Q c. d. Q/TC TR > TC d. TR = TC d. TR = TC c. 18. If a firm is maximizing profit, it produces at the point where a. MR > MC Answer: ฮTC/ฮQ b. MR = MC c. b. 19. If a perfectly competitive firm is a profit-maximizer, it produces where a. MR > MC Answer: b. P > MR c. P = MC c. 20. If a firm is producing at an output level such that the MR is \$550 and the MC is \$780, a. b. c. d. the firm incurs a total loss of \$230 the firm should contract production because marginal profit is less than zero Mฯ is +\$230 the firm should expand its output level because its total revenue is rising by \$550 Answer: b. 21. Suppose that a company produces at a point where its MR is \$430 and its MC is \$105, this implies that a. b. c. d. the firm earns a total profit of \$325 at that output level the firmโs total costs are rising faster than its total revenue the firmโs total profit is rising, suggesting that the firm should expand production each unit of output generates an average profit of \$325 Answer: 22. c. If a firm makes production decisions such that it achieves maximum output from a fixed stock of resources, this means that this firm is a. achieving allocative efficiency c. earning a normal profit b. earning a positive economic profit d. technically efficient Answer: d. ยฉ 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Page 2-6 23. If demand for clean water is specified as P = 140 โ 2Q, and the market price is \$40, then consumer surplus at that price level is a. \$2500 Answer: b. \$3000 c. \$1600 d. \$50 a. 24. Suppose that a producerโs supply curve is estimated to be P = 15 + 3Q and that the product is sold at P = \$45. At this price level, the firmโs producer surplus is a. \$2250 Answer: b. \$150 c. \$300 d. \$10 b. 25. The deadweight loss associated with a policy change is measured as a. b. c. d. the maximum value of consumer surplus the sum of consumer surplus and producer surplus associated with the new policy the excess of producer surplus over consumer surplus the sum of ฮ consumer surplus plus ฮ producer surplus associated with the new policy Answer: d. ยฉ 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Page 2-7 SHORT PROBLEMS 1. Consider the market for a Procter and Gamble biodegradable detergent. Suppose that market demand is QD = 120 โ 3P, and market supply is QS = โ50 + 2P, where P is the price per case and Q is the quantity in thousands per week. a. Find equilibrium quantity and price. b. What is the value of consumer surplus (CS) and producer surplus (PS) at equilibrium? c. If each case of detergent were sold at \$30, determine the amount of the shortage or surplus that would result. Solution 1a. Equilibrium price for the bio-degradable detergent occurs at the point where QD = QS. Therefore, set the demand and supply equations equal to one another and solve as follows: Equilibrium: QD = QS Substituting: 120 โ 3P = โ50 + 2P 5P = 170 PE = \$34 per case Solving: Substituting PE into either equation gives equilibrium output, QE: QE = 120 โ 3(34) = 18 thousand cases or: b. QE = โ50 + 2(34) = 18 thousand cases CS is calculated as the area of the triangle between demand and the market price, and PS is the area of the triangle between supply and the market price. Sketching a graph makes the calculation more apparent, as shown below. Note that when labeling vertical intercepts for the supply and demand equations, it is easier to first write each equation in inverse form, i.e., P = f(Q). In this case, the inverse demand equation is P = 40 โ โQD and the inverse supply equation is P = 25 + ยฝ QS. See graph below. ยฉ 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Page 2-8 P 40 S CS 34 PS 25 D 0 18 Q in thousands Now, itโs a simple matter to calculate the areas of each triangle. CS = ยฝ * base * height = ยฝ * 18 * 6 = \$54 thousand PS = ยฝ * base * height = ยฝ * 18 * 9 = \$81 thousand c. If each case of detergent were sold at \$30, the quantity demanded would be QD = 120 โ 3(30) = 30 thousand cases, while the quantity supplied would be QS = โ50 + 2(30) = 10. Since QD exceeds QS, there is a shortage equal to QD โ QS = 30 โ 10 = 20 thousand cases of detergent. (Be able to illustrate this graphically.) 2. In the competitive market for organic corn, market demand is QD = 340 โ 2P and market supply is QS = 100 + 4P, where P is the price per bushel, and Q is market output in thousands of bushels. Each individual farmer faces a marginal cost function of MC = 10 + 3q, where q is the single farmerโs output level in thousands. a. What is the equation for the demand (which is also MR) faced by the individual farmer? b. Based on your answer to part (a), find the profit-maximizing output level for each farmer. c. At an output level of 8 thousand bushels, explain in terms of both marginal profit and total profit why the individual farmer should expand production. Solution 2a. The individual competitive farm must accept the market-determined price of organic corn as given. This is the equilibrium or market-clearing price found where QD = QS for the entire market, as shown below. ยฉ 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Page 2-9 Substituting: Solving: QD = QS 340 โ 2P = 100 + 4P 6P = 240, or P = \$40 per bushel. Since the competitive firm has no control over price, it faces a horizontal demand curve at the \$40 price, so the equation for demand (and MR) it faces is simply P = MR = \$40. b. c. The profit-maximizing output level for each farmer is found where MR = MC. Find the result as follows: MR = MC Substituting: 40 = 10 + 3q Solving: 3q = 30, or q = 10 thousand bushels At an output level of 8 thousand bushels, the farmโs MR = \$40, but its MC = 10 + 3(8) = \$34. At this point, the farmerโs marginal profit (M๏ฐ), which equals MR โ MC, is \$6, which means that if the farm produces the 8000th bushel of organic corn, its total profit would rise by \$6. ยฉ 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Page 2-10 CASE STUDY CASE 2.1: THE MARKET FOR RECYCLED NEWSPRINT The amount of trash generated in the United States has risen from 88.1 million tons in 1960 to 243.0 million tons in 2009. Of this tonnage, approximately 28.2 percent is paper and paperboard. In a logical move, many communities established paper recycling programs in the 1980s. The first step was to encourage individuals and firms to bring paper wastes to collection centers. According to EPA data, as shown in the accompanying table, this recovery stage has met with some success. Types of Paper Waste 1980 Percent Recovered 1990 2000 2009 Containers and packaging 16.1 26.0 38.1 47.8 Newspaper 27.3 38.0 59.0 88.1 Books 8.3* 10.3 19.4 33.3 Magazines — 10.6 31.8 53.8 Office papers 21.8 26.5 55.1 74.2 *The 8.3 in 1980 represents books and magazines, which were reported in the aggregate prior to 1990. Although these data suggest that society responded responsibly, they belie a very real problem. Many communities failed to recognize the need to create a market for recovered materials. This was precisely the problem that arose during the late 1980s and continued into the 1990s. The result was insufficient demand for recovered newspapers, and the excess supply sent the price of used newsprint plummeting. To correct the problem, it was necessary to stimulate market demand. Virtually all levels of government took an active role. A number of state governments passed laws requiring newspapers to be partly printed on recycled paper. At the federal level, President Clinton signed Executive Order 12873, calling for all printing and writing paper to contain at least 20 percent recovered paper. (This amount was subsequently raised to 30 percent in Executive Order 13101.) The EPA established clearinghouses and hotlines to bring together suppliers and demanders of recyclables. Added influences were the thriving domestic economy and the rising demand of developing nations, whose growth required new sources of paper inputs. Taken together, market demand eventually swamped existing supplies, and in 1995, there was a shortage of recycled newsprint. Just as predicted by economic theory, the shortage placed upward pressure on price, which rose to between \$100 and \$200 per ton. The boom in the market was temporary, however. By 1996, excess supplies and falling demand drove prices back to the \$20 per ton level of the early 1990s. ยฉ 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Page 2-11 Such volatility is characteristic of this market and continues through the present day. As a case in point, assume that the market demand for recycled newsprint in 2011 is QD = 200 โ 2P and that market supply is QS = โ150 + 5P, where P is the price per ton and Q is the quantity in thousands of tons per year. 1. Based on these equations, determine the equilibrium quantity (QE) and price (PE) of recycled newsprint. 2. Graphically illustrate the recycled newsprint market based on the supply and demand equations given. Provide numerical labels, including the values derived in Question 1. 3. Suppose that as a consequence of market changes, the selling price of recycled newspaper is \$35 per ton. At this price level, is the market in an equilibrium, shortage, or surplus condition? Be sure to support with specific values. 4. Based on the market condition you determined in Question 3, what do you expect will happen to the price of recycled newsprint? Sources: U.S. EPA, Office of Solid Waste (December 2010), Table 1, p. 36; Table 16, p. 82; Reidy (July 24, 1996); โNewspaper Recycling Booming,โ (July 11, 1995). Solution 1. Equilibrium price for the recycled newsprint occurs where QD = QS. Therefore, set the demand and supply equations equal to one another and solve as follows: Equilibrium: QD = QS Substituting: 200 โ 2P = โ150 + 5P 7P = 350 PE = \$50 per ton Solving: Substituting PE into either equation gives equilibrium output, QE: QE = 200 โ 2(50) = 100 thousand tons per year or: QE = โ150 + 5(50) = 100 thousand tons per year ยฉ 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Page 2-12 2. The graph of this market is as follows: P 100 S 50 30 D 0 100 Q (thousands of tons) 3. If the market price per ton of recycled newsprint is \$35, the quantity demanded would be QD = 200 โ 2(35) = 130 thousand tons, while the quantity supplied would be QS = โ150 + 5(35) = 25 thousand tons. Since QD exceeds QS, there is a shortage equal to QDโ QS = 130 โ 25 = 105 thousand tons. (Be able to illustrate this graphically.) 4. Because a market price of \$35 per ton produces a shortage in the recycled newsprint market, we would expect upward pressure on the price per ton. ยฉ 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Page 2-13

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