# Test Bank for Electrocardiography for Healthcare Professionals, 5th Edition

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Electrocardiography for Healthcare Professionals, 5e (Booth) Chapter 2 The Cardiovascular System 1) The time from the beginning of atrial depolarization to the beginning of ventricular depolarization is shown on the ECG waveform as the: A) QRS complex. B) PR interval. C) QT interval. D) ST segment. Answer: B Explanation: The PR interval includes the P wave and the baseline before the QRS complex and represents the time from the beginning of atrial depolarization to the beginning of ventricular depolarization. Difficulty: 1 Easy Topic: Electrical Stimulation and the ECG Waveform Learning Objective: 02.06 Describe the heart activity that produces each part of the ECG waveform. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 2) What is recorded on the ECG strip? A) The electrical activity of the heart B) The muscle contractions of the heart C) The circulation of blood in the heart D) The size of the heart Answer: A Explanation: The electrical activity of the heart is recorded on the ECG. Difficulty: 1 Easy Topic: Circulation and the ECG Learning Objective: 02.01 Explain how circulation occurs in relation to the ECG. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 1 Copyright ยฉ 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 3) The average heart is approximately what size? A) The size of a baseball B) The size of your fist C) The size of a cantaloupe D) The size of your foot Answer: B Explanation: The heart is approximately the size of your fist and weighs about 10.6 ounces. Difficulty: 1 Easy Topic: Anatomy of the Heart Learning Objective: 02.02 Recall the structures of the heart including valves, chambers, and vessels. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 4) The outermost layer of the heart is the: A) endocardium. B) myocardium. C) epicardium. D) pericardium. Answer: C Explanation: The epicardium is the outermost layer and is thin and contains the coronary arteries. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Anatomy of the Heart Learning Objective: 02.02 Recall the structures of the heart including valves, chambers, and vessels. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions; 3.c Apply medical terminology for each specialty 2 Copyright ยฉ 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 5) The middle layer of the heart is the: A) endocardium. B) myocardium. C) epicardium. D) pericardium. Answer: B Explanation: The myocardium is the middle, muscular layer that contracts the heart. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Anatomy of the Heart Learning Objective: 02.02 Recall the structures of the heart including valves, chambers, and vessels. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions; 3.c Apply medical terminology for each specialty 6) The innermost layer of the heart is the: A) endocardium. B) myocardium. C) epicardium. D) pericardium. Answer: A Explanation: The endocardium is the innermost layer and lines the inner surfaces of the heart chambers and valves. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Anatomy of the Heart Learning Objective: 02.02 Recall the structures of the heart including valves, chambers, and vessels. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions; 3.c Apply medical terminology for each specialty 3 Copyright ยฉ 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 7) The sac of tissue that encloses the entire heart is the: A) atrium. B) ventricle. C) myocardium. D) pericardium. Answer: D Explanation: The pericardium is the sac of tissue that encloses the heart. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Anatomy of the Heart Learning Objective: 02.02 Recall the structures of the heart including valves, chambers, and vessels. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions; 3.c Apply medical terminology for each specialty 8) The purpose of the pericardium is to: A) protect the heart from infection and trauma. B) contract the heart. C) circulate blood through the coronary arteries. D) keep blood flow headed in the right direction. Answer: A Explanation: The purpose of the pericardium is to protect the heart from infection and trauma. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Anatomy of the Heart Learning Objective: 02.02 Recall the structures of the heart including valves, chambers, and vessels. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions; 3.c Apply medical terminology for each specialty 4 Copyright ยฉ 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 9) The heart is divided into four chambers. The top chambers are the: A) right atrium and right ventricle. B) left atrium and left ventricle. C) right atrium and left atrium. D) right ventricle and left ventricle. Answer: C Explanation: The top chambers of the heart are the right atrium and the left atrium. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Anatomy of the Heart Learning Objective: 02.02 Recall the structures of the heart including valves, chambers, and vessels. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 10) The heart is divided into four chambers. The bottom chambers are the: A) right atrium and right ventricle. B) left atrium and left ventricle. C) right atrium and left atrium. D) right ventricle and left ventricle. Answer: D Explanation: The bottom chambers are the right ventricle and the left ventricle. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Anatomy of the Heart Learning Objective: 02.02 Recall the structures of the heart including valves, chambers, and vessels. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 11) The valve located between the right atrium and right ventricle is the: A) mitral (bicuspid) valve. B) tricuspid valve. C) aortic valve. D) pulmonary valve. Answer: B Explanation: The tricuspid valve is located between the right atrium and the right ventricle. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Anatomy of the Heart Learning Objective: 02.02 Recall the structures of the heart including valves, chambers, and vessels. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 5 Copyright ยฉ 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 12) The valve located between the left atrium and left ventricle is the: A) mitral (bicuspid) valve. B) tricuspid valve. C) aortic valve. D) pulmonary valve. Answer: A Explanation: The mitral (bicuspid) valve is located between the left atrium and left ventricle. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Anatomy of the Heart Learning Objective: 02.02 Recall the structures of the heart including valves, chambers, and vessels. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions; 3.c Apply medical terminology for each specialty 13) The tricuspid and mitral (bicuspid) valves are known as ________ because they separate the atria from the ventricles. A) semilunar valves B) pulmonary valves C) atrioventricular (AV) valves D) aortic valves Answer: C Explanation: The tricuspid and mitral (bicuspid) valves are known as atrioventricular (AV) valves because they separate the atria from the ventricles. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Anatomy of the Heart Learning Objective: 02.02 Recall the structures of the heart including valves, chambers, and vessels. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions; 3.c Apply medical terminology for each specialty 6 Copyright ยฉ 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 14) The ________ valves separate the ventricles from the arteries leading to the lungs and body. A) tricuspid B) semilunar C) mitral (bicuspid) D) atrioventricular (AV) Answer: B Explanation: The semilunar valves separate the ventricles from the arteries leading to the lungs and body. Difficulty: 3 Hard Topic: Anatomy of the Heart Learning Objective: 02.02 Recall the structures of the heart including valves, chambers, and vessels. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions; 3.c Apply medical terminology for each specialty 15) The two semilunar valves are the: A) pulmonary and mitral valves. B) aortic and tricuspid valves. C) tricuspid and mitral valves. D) aortic and pulmonary valves. Answer: D Explanation: The valves leading to the pulmonary artery and the aorta are semilunar valves. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Anatomy of the Heart Learning Objective: 02.02 Recall the structures of the heart including valves, chambers, and vessels. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions; 3.c Apply medical terminology for each specialty 7 Copyright ยฉ 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 16) Blood returns to the heart via the veins. The largest vein is the: A) vena cava. B) cava vena. C) jugular vein. D) subclavian vein. Answer: A Explanation: The largest vein in the body is the vena cava. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Anatomy of the Heart Learning Objective: 02.02 Recall the structures of the heart including valves, chambers, and vessels. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions; 3.c Apply medical terminology for each specialty 17) Oxygenated blood travels through the heart via the A) pulmonary arteries. B) peripheral venous system. C) coronary arteries. D) pulmonary veins. Answer: C Explanation: Oxygenated blood travels through the aorta to the coronary arteries. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Principles of Circulation Learning Objective: 02.03 Differentiate among pulmonary, systemic, and coronary circulation. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 8 Copyright ยฉ 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 18) The valves located in the heart are important because they: A) regulate the speed of blood flow. B) prevent blood from flowing backwards. C) form electrical conduction through the heart. D) allow for good blood flow to the body. Answer: B Explanation: The flaps or cusps in the valves open to allow blood flow, then close to prevent the backflow of blood. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Anatomy of the Heart Learning Objective: 02.02 Recall the structures of the heart including valves, chambers, and vessels. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 19) Blood that leaves the right ventricle is considered: A) deoxygenated. B) systemic. C) peripheral venous return. D) visceral. Answer: A Explanation: When the heart contracts, the right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs via the pulmonary artery. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Anatomy of the Heart Learning Objective: 02.02 Recall the structures of the heart including valves, chambers, and vessels. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 9 Copyright ยฉ 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 20) What are the first vessels to branch off the aorta? A) Coronary arteries B) Capillaries C) Venae cavae D) Pulmonary arteries Answer: A Explanation: Oxygenated blood from the left ventricle travels through the aorta to the coronary arteries. These arteries branch to supply oxygenated blood to the entire heart. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Principles of Circulation Learning Objective: 02.03 Differentiate among pulmonary, systemic, and coronary circulation. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 21) The volume of blood pumped each minute is referred to as the: A) cardiac cycle. B) cardiac output. C) stroke volume. D) systole. Answer: B Explanation: The volume of blood pumped each minute is referred to as cardiac output. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Principles of Circulation Learning Objective: 02.03 Differentiate among pulmonary, systemic, and coronary circulation. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 3.c Apply medical terminology for each specialty 22) The volume of blood ejected with each contraction is referred to as the: A) cardiac cycle. B) cardiac output. C) stroke volume. D) systole. Answer: C Explanation: The volume of blood ejected with each contraction is referred to as stroke volume. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Principles of Circulation Learning Objective: 02.03 Differentiate among pulmonary, systemic, and coronary circulation. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 3.c Apply medical terminology for each specialty 23) The “lubb” and “dupp” sounds you hear are made by the: 10 Copyright ยฉ 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. A) opening and closing of the heart valves. B) atria contracting. C) ventricles contracting. D) blood flow through the heart. Answer: A Explanation: These sounds are made by the opening and closing of the heart valves. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: The Cardiac Cycle Learning Objective: 02.04 Explain the cardiac cycle including the difference between systole and diastole. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 24) The phase of the cardiac cycle when the heart is expanding and refilling, also known as the relaxation phase, is: A) systole. B) diastole. C) automaticity. D) conductivity. Answer: B Explanation: As the heart relaxes, it is expanding and refilling. The relaxation phase of the heart is known as diastole. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: The Cardiac Cycle Learning Objective: 02.04 Explain the cardiac cycle including the difference between systole and diastole. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 11 Copyright ยฉ 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 25) The phase of the cardiac cycle when the heart is pumping blood out to the body, also known as the contraction phase, is: A) systole. B) diastole. C) automaticity. D) conductivity. Answer: A Explanation: When the heart contracts, it is squeezing blood out to the body. The contraction phase is known as systole. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: The Cardiac Cycle Learning Objective: 02.04 Explain the cardiac cycle including the difference between systole and diastole. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 26) Together, the contraction and relaxation of the heart make up: A) systole. B) diastole. C) the cardiac cycle. D) coronary circulation. Answer: C Explanation: Systole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation) of the heart make up the cardiac cycle. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: The Cardiac Cycle Learning Objective: 02.04 Explain the cardiac cycle including the difference between systole and diastole. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions; 3.c Apply medical terminology for each specialty 12 Copyright ยฉ 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 27) The heart’s own ability to initiate an electrical impulse without being stimulated by another source is known as: A) contractility. B) excitability. C) conductivity. D) automaticity. Answer: D Explanation: Automaticity is the ability of the heart to initiate an electrical impulse. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Conduction System of the Heart Learning Objective: 02.05 Describe the structure and function of the heart and conduction system and how they relate to the ECG. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions; 3.c Apply medical terminology for each specialty 28) The ability of the heart cells to receive and transmit an electrical impulse is known as: A) contractility. B) excitability. C) conductivity. D) automaticity. Answer: C Explanation: Conductivity is the ability of the heart cells to receive and transmit an electrical impulse. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Conduction System of the Heart Learning Objective: 02.05 Describe the structure and function of the heart and conduction system and how they relate to the ECG. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions; 3.c Apply medical terminology for each specialty 13 Copyright ยฉ 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 29) The ability of the heart muscle cells to shorten in response to an electrical impulse is known as: A) contractility. B) excitability. C) conductivity. D) automaticity. Answer: A Explanation: Contractility is the ability of the heart muscle cells to shorten, or contract, in response to an electrical stimulus. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Conduction System of the Heart Learning Objective: 02.05 Describe the structure and function of the heart and conduction system and how they relate to the ECG. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions; 3.c Apply medical terminology for each specialty 30) The ability of the heart muscle cells to respond to an impulse or stimulus is known as: A) contractility. B) excitability. C) conductivity. D) automaticity. Answer: B Explanation: Excitability is the ability of the heart muscle cells to respond to an impulse or stimulus. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Conduction System of the Heart Learning Objective: 02.05 Describe the structure and function of the heart and conduction system and how they relate to the ECG. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions; 3.c Apply medical terminology for each specialty 14 Copyright ยฉ 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 31) When the sympathetic branch of the ANS (automatic nervous system) is stimulated, the heart responds by: A) speeding up. B) slowing down. C) beating more regularly. D) contracting with greater force. Answer: A Explanation: When the sympathetic branch of the ANS is stimulated, it speeds up the heart. Difficulty: 3 Hard Topic: Conduction System of the Heart Learning Objective: 02.05 Describe the structure and function of the heart and conduction system and how they relate to the ECG. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 32) What is the heart’s response to stimulation of the vagus nerve? A) It beats more regularly. B) It contracts with greater force. C) It speeds up. D) It slows down. Answer: D Explanation: Stimulation of the vagus nerve slows the heart. Difficulty: 3 Hard Topic: Conduction System of the Heart Learning Objective: 02.05 Describe the structure and function of the heart and conduction system and how they relate to the ECG. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 15 Copyright ยฉ 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 33) The function of the bundle branches is to: A) delay the electrical impulse to allow for the atrial kick to occur. B) conduct electrical impulses from the atria to the ventricles. C) conduct electrical impulses from the AV node to the left and right ventricles. D) distribute the electrical impulse through the myocardium. Answer: C Explanation: The bundle branches conduct electrical impulses from the AV node to the left and right ventricles. Difficulty: 3 Hard Topic: Conduction System of the Heart Learning Objective: 02.05 Describe the structure and function of the heart and conduction system and how they relate to the ECG. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 34) The SA node sends electrical impulses at a rate of: A) 72 to 100 bpm. B) 40 to 60 bpm. C) 20 to 40 bpm. D) 60 to 100 bpm. Answer: D Explanation: The SA node fires at about 60 to 100 times per minute. Difficulty: 3 Hard Topic: Conduction System of the Heart Learning Objective: 02.05 Describe the structure and function of the heart and conduction system and how they relate to the ECG. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 16 Copyright ยฉ 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 35) The primary pacemaker of a normal heart, where the electrical impulse for the heartbeat originates, is the: A) SA node. B) AV node. C) bundle of His. D) Purkinje network. Answer: A Explanation: The sinoatrial (SA) node is the primary pacemaker of the heart and initiates the heartbeat in the normal heart. Difficulty: 1 Easy Topic: Conduction System of the Heart Learning Objective: 02.05 Describe the structure and function of the heart and conduction system and how they relate to the ECG. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 36) The AV node has several important functions that help the heart work effectively. Which of the following is not a function of the AV node? A) It causes the delay of electrical impulses, which limits the number of impulses traveling to the ventricles. B) It allows for a delay to provide time for the blood to travel from the atria to the ventricles before they contract. C) It causes a loss of atrial kick. D) It serves as a backup pacemaker if the SA node fails. Answer: C Explanation: The AV node causes a delay in the electrical impulse, which provides time for additional blood to travel from the atria to the ventricles before they contract. This additional blood is known as the atrial kick. Difficulty: 3 Hard Topic: Conduction System of the Heart Learning Objective: 02.05 Describe the structure and function of the heart and conduction system and how they relate to the ECG. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 17 Copyright ยฉ 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 37) Depolarization of the cells causes the heart muscle to: A) relax. B) refill the chambers of the heart. C) conduct electrical impulses. D) contract. Answer: D Explanation: Depolarization is the most important electrical event in the heartโit causes the heart to contract and pump blood to the body. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Electrical Stimulation and the ECG Waveform Learning Objective: 02.06 Describe the heart activity that produces each part of the ECG waveform. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 38) The P wave represents: A) atrial contraction. B) atrial relaxation. C) ventricular contraction. D) ventricular relaxation. Answer: A Explanation: The P wave represents atrial depolarization with resulting atrial contraction. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Electrical Stimulation and the ECG Waveform Learning Objective: 02.06 Describe the heart activity that produces each part of the ECG waveform. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 18 Copyright ยฉ 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 39) The T wave represents: A) atrial contraction. B) atrial relaxation. C) ventricular contraction. D) ventricular relaxation. Answer: D Explanation: The T wave represents ventricular repolarization or relaxation. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Electrical Stimulation and the ECG Waveform Learning Objective: 02.06 Describe the heart activity that produces each part of the ECG waveform. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 40) Circulation is the process of; A) electricity flowing through the heart. B) blood flowing through the ventricles. C) transporting blood to and from body tissues. D) systole and diastole. Answer: C Explanation: Circulation, the process of transporting blood to and from the body tissues, depends on the heart’s ability to contract or beat. Difficulty: 1 Easy Topic: Circulation and the ECG Learning Objective: 02.01 Explain how circulation occurs in relation to the ECG. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 3.c Apply medical terminology for each specialty 41) Which of the following statements best describes the function of the heart? A) It transports nutrients and oxygen to the body tissues. B) It pumps blood to and from the body tissues. C) It oxygenates blood to be sent to the body tissues. D) It removes waste gases from the body tissues. Answer: B Explanation: The heart pumps blood to and from all of the tissues of the body. The blood carries oxygen and nutrients to the body tissues and removes wastes from the body tissues. Difficulty: 1 Easy Topic: Circulation and the ECG Learning Objective: 02.01 Explain how circulation occurs in relation to the ECG. Bloom’s: Understand Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 19 Copyright ยฉ 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 42) Systemic circulation is the movement of blood: A) between the heart and lungs. B) between the heart and kidneys. C) to and from the heart muscle. D) throughout the body tissues. Answer: D Explanation: Systemic circulation is the movement of oxygenated blood from the heart to the body tissues and the return of the deoxygenated blood to the heart. Difficulty: 1 Easy Topic: Principles of Circulation Learning Objective: 02.03 Differentiate among pulmonary, systemic, and coronary circulation. Bloom’s: Understand Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 43) Which of the following statements best describes the right side of the heart? A) It is a low-pressure pump that moves blood with a low oxygen concentration. B) It is a low-pressure pump that moves blood with a high oxygen concentration. C) It is a high-pressure pump that moves blood with a low oxygen concentration. D) It is a high-pressure pump that moves blood with a high oxygen concentration. Answer: A Explanation: The right side of the heart is a low-pressure pump that receives deoxygenated blood from the body tissues and pumps it to the lungs for oxygenation. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Principles of Circulation Learning Objective: 02.03 Differentiate among pulmonary, systemic, and coronary circulation. Bloom’s: Understand Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 44) Coronary circulation is the movement of blood: A) between the heart and lungs. B) between the heart and kidneys. C) to and from the heart muscle. D) throughout the body tissues. Answer: C Explanation: Coronary circulation is the movement of blood to and from the heart muscle. Difficulty: 1 Easy Topic: Principles of Circulation Learning Objective: 02.03 Differentiate among pulmonary, systemic, and coronary circulation. Bloom’s: Understand Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 20 Copyright ยฉ 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 45) In pulmonary circulation, blood is transported from the right ventricle to the: A) body tissues. B) lungs. C) left atrium. D) coronary arteries. Answer: B Explanation: In pulmonary circulation, blood moves from the right ventricle to the lungs, where it is oxygenated. The oxygenated blood then flows back to the left atrium of the heart. Difficulty: 1 Easy Topic: Principles of Circulation Learning Objective: 02.03 Differentiate among pulmonary, systemic, and coronary circulation. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 46) The average volume of blood pumped each minute in a normal heart is: A) 1 liter per minute. B) 3 liters per minute. C) 5 liters per minute. D) 7 liters per minute. Answer: C Explanation: The average cardiac output of a normal heart is 5 liters per minute. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Anatomy of the Heart; Principles of Circulation Learning Objective: 02.02 Recall the structures of the heart including valves, chambers, and vessels.; 02.03 Differentiate among pulmonary, systemic, and coronary circulation. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 21 Copyright ยฉ 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 47) Your employer requires you to check patient vital signs before performing an ECG. Today, you find that a patient’s blood pressure is 90/40. The patient looks pale and complains of dizziness. Based on these signs and symptoms, you might suspect that the patient: A) has hypertension. B) has a low cardiac output. C) has cardiac ischemia. D) is having a myocardial infarction. Answer: B Explanation: Typical symptoms of a low cardiac output include pallor, confusion, low blood pressure, nausea, and dizziness. Difficulty: 3 Hard Topic: Principles of Circulation Learning Objective: 02.03 Differentiate among pulmonary, systemic, and coronary circulation. Bloom’s: Apply Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 8.b Obtain vital signs, obtain patient history, and formulate chief complaint 48) To estimate a person’s cardiac output, you can: A) count the patient’s heart rate for 15 seconds and multiply by 4. B) multiply the respiratory rate by the heart rate. C) multiply the stroke volume by the respiratory rate. D) multiply the heart rate by the stroke volume. Answer: D Explanation: To estimate a person’s cardiac output, multiply the heart rate by the stroke volume. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Principles of Circulation Learning Objective: 02.03 Differentiate among pulmonary, systemic, and coronary circulation. Bloom’s: Understand Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 22 Copyright ยฉ 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 49) Which of the following actions occurs during diastole? A) Blood from the vena cava fills the right atrium. B) Blood from the left ventricle is pushed through the aorta. C) Blood from the right ventricle is pushed to the lungs. D) Blood from the right atrium moves to the left ventricle. Answer: A Explanation: During diastole, blood from the vena cava fills the right atrium, pushing the tricuspid valve open to allow the blood already in the right atrium to flow into the right ventricle. Blood from the pulmonary veins flows into the left atrium, forcing the mitral valve open to allow the blood already in the left atrium to flow into the left ventricle. Difficulty: 3 Hard Topic: The Cardiac Cycle Learning Objective: 02.04 Explain the cardiac cycle including the difference between systole and diastole. Bloom’s: Understand Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 50) Which of the following statements is true about heart rates? A) In adults, the average heart beats approximately 40 to 60 times per minute. B) Children’s heart rates are usually slower than an adult’s heart rate. C) Children’s heart rates depend on the age and size of the child. D) Women generally have a slower heart rate than men. Answer: C Explanation: The average adult heart rate is 60 to 100 times per minute. Women generally have a faster heart rate than men, and children generally have a faster heart rate than adults, although a child’s heart rate depends partly on the child’s age and size. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: The Cardiac Cycle Learning Objective: 02.04 Explain the cardiac cycle including the difference between systole and diastole. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 23 Copyright ยฉ 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 51) Which of the following actions occurs during systole? A) Blood from the vena cava fills the right atrium. B) The heart muscle relaxes. C) The tricuspid and mitral valves open. D) The pulmonary and aortic valves open. Answer: D Explanation: During systole, the heart muscle contracts. This creates pressure that forces the pulmonary and aortic valves open. Difficulty: 3 Hard Topic: The Cardiac Cycle Learning Objective: 02.04 Explain the cardiac cycle including the difference between systole and diastole. Bloom’s: Understand Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 52) The part of the autonomic nervous system that helps slow the heart rate is the: A) sympathetic branch. B) parasympathetic branch. C) somatic nervous system. D) peripheral nervous system. Answer: B Explanation: The major nerve in the parasympathetic branch of the ANS is the vagus nerve. Stimulation of this nerve slows the heart rate. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Conduction System of the Heart Learning Objective: 02.05 Describe the structure and function of the heart and conduction system and how they relate to the ECG. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 24 Copyright ยฉ 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 53) Which of the following electrolytes plays a large role in the control of the heart rate? A) Iron B) Copper C) Potassium D) Manganese Answer: C Explanation: Calcium and potassium help control the heart rate. When the blood concentration of potassium is low, the heart rate decreases, but when the concentration is high, it results in an abnormal rate or rhythm. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Conduction System of the Heart Learning Objective: 02.05 Describe the structure and function of the heart and conduction system and how they relate to the ECG. Bloom’s: Understand Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 54) The structure that relays an electrical impulse from the SA node to the left atrium in a normal heart is the: A) AV node. B) bundle of His. C) Purkinje network. D) Bachmann’s bundle. Answer: D Explanation: Bachmann’s bundle relays the electrical impulse from the SA node to the right atrium in a normal heart. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Conduction System of the Heart Learning Objective: 02.05 Describe the structure and function of the heart and conduction system and how they relate to the ECG. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 25 Copyright ยฉ 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 55) The structure that transfers an electrical impulse from the atria to the ventricles is the: A) AV node. B) bundle of His. C) Purkinje network. D) Bachmann’s bundle. Answer: B Explanation: The bundle of His, located next to the AV node, transfers electrical impulses from the atria to the ventricles. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Conduction System of the Heart Learning Objective: 02.05 Describe the structure and function of the heart and conduction system and how they relate to the ECG. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 56) Electrical impulses are spread throughout the ventricles by the: A) AV node. B) bundle of His. C) Purkinje network. D) Bachmann’s bundle. Answer: C Explanation: The Purkinje network is made up of Purkinje fibers that provide an electrical pathway through each cardiac cell. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Conduction System of the Heart Learning Objective: 02.05 Describe the structure and function of the heart and conduction system and how they relate to the ECG. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 26 Copyright ยฉ 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 57) The state in which the inside of each heart cell is negatively charged and the outside is positively charged is: A) polarization. B) depolarization. C) excitability. D) action potential. Answer: A Explanation: Polarization is a state in which the inside is negatively charged and the outside is positively charged. This is the resting state of the cells, when they are at their peak resting energy. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Electrical Stimulation and the ECG Waveform Learning Objective: 02.06 Describe the heart activity that produces each part of the ECG waveform. Bloom’s: Understand Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions; 3.c Apply medical terminology for each specialty 58) The rapid change in polarization that occurs when the electrical charge is reversed across the cell membrane so that the inside of each cell is positively charged is referred to as: A) repolarization. B) polarization. C) action potential. D) excitability. Answer: C Explanation: Action potential is the change in the electrical potential of the heart muscle when it is stimulated. Difficulty: 3 Hard Topic: Electrical Stimulation and the ECG Waveform Learning Objective: 02.06 Describe the heart activity that produces each part of the ECG waveform. Bloom’s: Understand Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions; 3.c Apply medical terminology for each specialty 27 Copyright ยฉ 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 59) The state of cellular stimulation that precedes cardiac contraction is: A) repolarization. B) polarization. C) action potential. D) depolarization. Answer: D Explanation: Depolarization is the electrical activation of the heart cells that initiates the contraction of the heart muscle. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Electrical Stimulation and the ECG Waveform Learning Objective: 02.06 Describe the heart activity that produces each part of the ECG waveform. Bloom’s: Understand Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions; 3.c Apply medical terminology for each specialty 60) The straight, horizontal line on an electrocardiogram that occurs when the tracing is at zero and no deflections are occurring is called the: A) interval. B) isoelectric line. C) complex. D) action potential. Answer: B Explanation: The depolarization and repolarization of the heart cause up-and-down deflections off the isoelectric line in an electrocardiogram. Difficulty: 1 Easy Topic: Electrical Stimulation and the ECG Waveform Learning Objective: 02.06 Describe the heart activity that produces each part of the ECG waveform. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions; 3.c Apply medical terminology for each specialty 28 Copyright ยฉ 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 61) An interval on an ECG tracing is: A) the period of time between two activities within the heart. B) any portion of the electrical tracing that is produced by the heart. C) a complete ECG waveform. D) the result of atrial depolarization. Answer: A Explanation: An interval is the period of time between any two activities within the heart. Difficulty: 1 Easy Topic: Electrical Stimulation and the ECG Waveform Learning Objective: 02.06 Describe the heart activity that produces each part of the ECG waveform. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 62) A complete ECG waveform is called a(n): A) interval. B) segment. C) action potential. D) complex. Answer: D Explanation: A complete ECG waveform is called a complex. Difficulty: 1 Easy Topic: Electrical Stimulation and the ECG Waveform Learning Objective: 02.06 Describe the heart activity that produces each part of the ECG waveform. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 3.c Apply medical terminology for each specialty 63) The QRS complex on an ECG tracing represents: A) atrial depolarization and contraction. B) ventricular depolarization and contraction. C) repolarization of the bundle of His. D) ventricular repolarization. Answer: B Explanation: The QRS complex represents ventricular depolarization and the resulting ventricular contraction. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Electrical Stimulation and the ECG Waveform Learning Objective: 02.06 Describe the heart activity that produces each part of the ECG waveform. Bloom’s: Understand Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 29 Copyright ยฉ 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 64) On an ECG tracing, the period of time from the start of ventricular depolarization to the end of ventricular repolarization is the: A) U wave. B) QT interval. C) ST segment. D) PR interval. Answer: B Explanation: The QT interval is the period of time from the start of ventricular depolarization to the end of ventricular repolarization. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Electrical Stimulation and the ECG Waveform Learning Objective: 02.06 Describe the heart activity that produces each part of the ECG waveform. Bloom’s: Understand Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 65) The ST segment represents A) the time between atrial depolarization and atrial repolarization. B) the time it takes the Purkinje fibers to repolarize. C) the time from the beginning of atrial depolarization to the beginning of ventricular depolarization. D) the time between ventricular depolarization and the beginning of ventricular repolarization. Answer: D Explanation: The ST segment represents the time from the end of ventricular depolarization to the beginning of ventricular repolarization. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Electrical Stimulation and the ECG Waveform Learning Objective: 02.06 Describe the heart activity that produces each part of the ECG waveform. Bloom’s: Understand Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 30 Copyright ยฉ 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 66) The conduction of the electrical impulse through both ventricles appears on an ECG tracing as the: A) P wave. B) S wave. C) Q wave. D) U wave. Answer: B Explanation: The S wave on the ECG tracing represents the conduction of the electrical impulse through the ventricles. Difficulty: 3 Hard Topic: Electrical Stimulation and the ECG Waveform Learning Objective: 02.06 Describe the heart activity that produces each part of the ECG waveform. Bloom’s: Understand Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 67) A sudden loss of blood supply and oxygen to a region of heart tissue is known as: A) ischemia. B) pericarditis. C) myocardial infarction. D) atherosclerosis. Answer: A Explanation: Ischemia occurs when there is a sudden loss or reduction in blood supply and oxygen to a region of the heart tissue. It may be caused by atherosclerotic plaque, blood clot, emboli, or vascular spasm. Difficulty: 1 Easy Topic: Electrical Stimulation and the ECG Waveform Learning Objective: 02.06 Describe the heart activity that produces each part of the ECG waveform. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 3.c Apply medical terminology for each specialty 31 Copyright ยฉ 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 68) The first positive wave in a normal QRS complex is the R wave, which represents conduction of the electrical impulse: A) through the right ventricle. B) through the left atrium. C) to the left ventricle. D) to the right atrium. Answer: C Explanation: Conduction of the electrical impulse to the left ventricle results in a positive deflection known as the R wave. Difficulty: 3 Hard Topic: Electrical Stimulation and the ECG Waveform Learning Objective: 02.06 Describe the heart activity that produces each part of the ECG waveform. Bloom’s: Understand Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 69) Ventricular repolarization is represented on the ECG tracing by the: A) R wave. B) Q wave. C) S wave. D) T wave. Answer: D Explanation: The T wave represents ventricular repolarization. In a normal heart, the T wave deflects in the same direction as the P wave. Difficulty: 3 Hard Topic: Electrical Stimulation and the ECG Waveform Learning Objective: 02.06 Describe the heart activity that produces each part of the ECG waveform. Bloom’s: Understand Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 32 Copyright ยฉ 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 70) You are preparing to perform an ECG on a young woman when she tells you that she just had her blood tested and her blood potassium level is very low. What might you expect to see on the ECG tracing as a result of this? A) The heart rate will be slow. B) The rhythm will be irregular. C) The heart rate will be fast. D) The heart contractions will be longer than normal. Answer: A Explanation: When there is a low concentration of potassium ions in the blood, the heart rate decreases. Difficulty: 3 Hard Topic: Electrical Stimulation and the ECG Waveform Learning Objective: 02.06 Describe the heart activity that produces each part of the ECG waveform. Bloom’s: Apply Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 71) You are working in an outpatient facility that performs ECGs by appointment. You go to the lobby to call your next patient. The patient gets up and comes with you, but you notice that he is out of breath. When you ask, he tells you that he works only two blocks away, but he was held up at the office and had to run in order to make his appointment time. Which of the following is your best course of action? A) Compliment the patient on making his appointment time and perform the ECG. B) Ask the patient to make another appointment and come back when he is not out of breath. C) Explain that you need to wait for his vital signs to return to normal before running the ECG. D) Perform the ECG and place a note in the patient’s file that his vital signs were abnormal. Answer: C Explanation: You should wait until the patient’s respirations and heart rate return to normal in order to get an accurate ECG tracing. You might ask the patient to step back into the lobby and “catch his breath,” assuring him that you will come back to get him shortly. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Electrical Stimulation and the ECG Waveform Learning Objective: 02.06 Describe the heart activity that produces each part of the ECG waveform. Bloom’s: Apply Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 33 Copyright ยฉ 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 72) The J point is the A) junction of the QRS interval and the ST interval. B) highest peak of the R wave. C) point at which the bundle of His divides into branches. D) attachment point for the papillary muscles. Answer: A Explanation: The J point is the junction of the QRS interval and the ST interval on an ECG tracing. It represents the end of the QRS complex and ventricular depolarization. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Electrical Stimulation and the ECG Waveform Learning Objective: 02.06 Describe the heart activity that produces each part of the ECG waveform. Bloom’s: Understand Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 3.c Apply medical terminology for each specialty 73) Which of the following is not included in the QT interval? A) R wave B) P wave C) T wave D) ST segment Answer: B Explanation: The QT interval is the time required for ventricular depolarization and repolarization to take place. It includes the QRS complex, the ST segment, and the T wave. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Electrical Stimulation and the ECG Waveform Learning Objective: 02.06 Describe the heart activity that produces each part of the ECG waveform. Bloom’s: Understand Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 34 Copyright ยฉ 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 74) The U wave, which follows the T wave in an ECG tracing, represents: A) repolarization of the ventricles. B) the time required for ventricular depolarization and repolarization. C) the end of ventricular depolarization and the beginning of ventricular repolarization. D) repolarization of the Purkinje fibers and the bundle of His. Answer: D Explanation: The U wave represents the repolarization of the Purkinje fibers and the bundle of His. It does not always show up on the ECG tracing, but when it does, it may indicate an electrolyte imbalance. Difficulty: 3 Hard Topic: Electrical Stimulation and the ECG Waveform Learning Objective: 02.06 Describe the heart activity that produces each part of the ECG waveform. Bloom’s: Understand Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 35 Copyright ยฉ 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 75) Match the numbers from the figure to the correct structure located on the chest. A. Diaphragm B. Apex of heart C. Intercostal space D. Sternum E. Base of heart F. Midclavicular line G. Heart ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ 36 Copyright ยฉ 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Answer: A. 4; B. 6; C. 1; D. 3; E. 2; F. 7; G. 5 Explanation: Numbers Correct structure 1 Intercostal space 2 Base of heart 3 Sternum 4 Diaphragm 5 Heart 6 Apex of heart 7 Midclavicular line Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Anatomy of the Heart Learning Objective: 02.02 Recall the structures of the heart including valves, chambers, and vessels. Bloom’s: Understand Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 76) The rapid change in polarization is known as ________. A) repolarization B) cardiac cycle C) action potential D) contraction Answer: C Explanation: The rapid change in polarization is known as action potential. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Electrical Stimulation and the ECG Waveform Learning Objective: 02.06 Describe the heart activity that produces each part of the ECG waveform. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 3.c Apply medical terminology for each specialty 37 Copyright ยฉ 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 77) Repolarization of the cells causes the heart muscle to: A) return to their resting phase. B) eject the chambers of the heart. C) infarct. D) contract. Answer: A Explanation: The cardiac cells return to their resting phase of internal negativity. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Electrical Stimulation and the ECG Waveform Learning Objective: 02.06 Describe the heart activity that produces each part of the ECG waveform. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 78) The QRS complex represents: A) atrial depolarization. B) ventricular repolarization. C) ventricular depolarization. D) atrial repolarization. Answer: C Explanation: The QRS complex represents ventricular depolarization. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Electrical Stimulation and the ECG Waveform Learning Objective: 02.06 Describe the heart activity that produces each part of the ECG waveform. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation ABHES: 2.a List all body systems and their structures and functions 79) Which of the following is a sign of ischemia? A) absence of R waves. B) ST segment located on the isoelectric line. C) ST segment depression. D) P wave inversion. Answer: C Explanation: The ST segment becomes elevated or depressed, depending on the extent of the ischemia and the amount of damage to the cardiac cells. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Electrical Stimulation and the ECG Waveform Learning Objective: 02.06 Describe the heart activity that produces each part of the ECG waveform. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 38 Copyright ยฉ 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 80) Where is the PR interval measured? A) From the beginning of the P wave to the beginning of the QRS complex. B) From the beginning of the Q wave to the end of the T waves. C) From the end of the P wave to the beginning of the QRS complex. D) From the end of the P wave to the end of the QRS complex. Answer: A Explanation: The PR interval is measured from the beginning of the P wave to the beginning of the QRS complex. Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Electrical Stimulation and the ECG Waveform Learning Objective: 02.06 Describe the heart activity that produces each part of the ECG waveform. Bloom’s: Remember Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 39 Copyright ยฉ 2019 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

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