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C H A P T E R
2
Mathematical Models of Systems
Exercises
E2.1
We have for the open-loop
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
u v p
y ill
de le o rse ide rot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
y = r2
and for the closed-loop
e = r โ y and y = e2 .
So, e = r โ e2 and e2 + e โ r = 0 .
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
openโloop
5
closedโloop
0
0
1
2
3
r
4
5
6
FIGURE E2.1
Plot of open-loop versus closed-loop.
For example, if r = 1, then e2 + e โ 1 = 0 implies that e = 0.618. Thus,
y = 0.382. A plot y versus r is shown in Figure E2.1.
22
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
23
Exercises
E2.2
Define
f (T ) = R = R0 eโ0.1T
and
โR = f (T ) โ f (T0 ) , โT = T โ T0 .
Then,
โR = f (T ) โ f (T0 ) =
โf
โT + ยท ยท ยท
โT T =T0 =20โฆ
where
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
โf
= โ0.1R0 eโ0.1T0 = โ135,
โT T =T0 =20โฆ
when R0 = 10, 000โฆ. Thus, the linear approximation is computed by
considering only the first-order terms in the Taylor series expansion, and
is given by
โR = โ135โT .
E2.3
The spring constant for the equilibrium point is found graphically by
estimating the slope of a line tangent to the force versus displacement
curve at the point y = 0.5cm, see Figure E2.3. The slope of the line is
K โ 1.
2
1.5
Spring breaks
1
0.5
Force (n)
0
-0.5
-1
-1.5
-2
-2.5
-3
-2
Spring compresses
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
y=Displacement (cm)
FIGURE E2.3
Spring force as a function of displacement.
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
24
CHAPTER 2
E2.4
Mathematical Models of Systems
Since
R(s) =
1
s
we have
Y (s) =
6(s + 50)
.
s(s + 30)(s + 10)
The partial fraction expansion of Y (s) is given by
Y (s) =
A1
A2
A3
+
+
s
s + 30 s + 10
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
where
A1 = 1 , A2 = 0.2 and A3 = โ1.2 .
Using the Laplace transform table, we find that
y(t) = 1 + 0.2eโ30t โ 1.2eโ10t .
The final value is computed using the final value theorem:
6(s + 50)
lim y(t) = lim s
=1.
2
tโโ
sโ0
s(s + 40s + 300)
E2.5
The circuit diagram is shown in Figure E2.5.
R2
v+
A
+
vin
–
+
v0
–
R1
FIGURE E2.5
Noninverting op-amp circuit.
With an ideal op-amp, we have
vo = A(vin โ v โ ),
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
25
Exercises
where A is very large. We have the relationship
vโ =
R1
vo .
R1 + R2
Therefore,
vo = A(vin โ
R1
vo ),
R1 + R2
and solving for vo yields
vo =
A
1
1 + RAR
1 +R2
vin .
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
1
1
Since A โซ 1, it follows that 1 + RAR
โ RAR
. Then the expression for
1 +R2
1 +R2
vo simplifies to
vo =
E2.6
R1 + R2
vin .
R1
Given
y = f (x) = ex
and the operating point xo = 1, we have the linear approximation
y = f (x) = f (xo ) +
โf
(x โ xo ) + ยท ยท ยท
โx x=xo
where
df
= e,
dx x=xo =1
f (xo ) = e,
and x โ xo = x โ 1.
Therefore, we obtain the linear approximation y = ex.
E2.7
The block diagram is shown in Figure E2.7.
R(s)
Ea(s)
+
G1(s)
G2(s)
I(s)
–
H(s)
FIGURE E2.7
Block diagram model.
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
26
CHAPTER 2
Mathematical Models of Systems
Starting at the output we obtain
I(s) = G1 (s)G2 (s)E(s).
But E(s) = R(s) โ H(s)I(s), so
I(s) = G1 (s)G2 (s) [R(s) โ H(s)I(s)] .
Solving for I(s) yields the closed-loop transfer function
G1 (s)G2 (s)
I(s)
=
.
R(s)
1 + G1 (s)G2 (s)H(s)
E2.8
The block diagram is shown in Figure E2.8.
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
H2(s)
–
R(s)
K
–
E(s)
–
G1(s)
W(s) –
A(s)
G2(s)
Z(s)
1
s
Y(s)
H3(s)
H1(s)
FIGURE E2.8
Block diagram model.
Starting at the output we obtain
Y (s) =
1
1
Z(s) = G2 (s)A(s).
s
s
But A(s) = G1 (s) [โH2 (s)Z(s) โ H3 (s)A(s) + W (s)] and Z(s) = sY (s),
so
1
Y (s) = โG1 (s)G2 (s)H2 (s)Y (s) โ G1 (s)H3 (s)Y (s) + G1 (s)G2 (s)W (s).
s
Substituting W (s) = KE(s) โ H1 (s)Z(s) into the above equation yields
Y (s) = โG1 (s)G2 (s)H2 (s)Y (s) โ G1 (s)H3 (s)Y (s)
1
+ G1 (s)G2 (s) [KE(s) โ H1 (s)Z(s)]
s
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
27
Exercises
and with E(s) = R(s) โ Y (s) and Z(s) = sY (s) this reduces to
Y (s) = [โG1 (s)G2 (s) (H2 (s) + H1 (s)) โ G1 (s)H3 (s)
1
1
โ G1 (s)G2 (s)K]Y (s) + G1 (s)G2 (s)KR(s).
s
s
Solving for Y (s) yields the transfer function
Y (s) = T (s)R(s),
where
T (s) =
E2.9
KG1 (s)G2 (s)/s
.
1 + G1 (s)G2 (s) [(H2 (s) + H1 (s)] + G1 (s)H3 (s) + KG1 (s)G2 (s)/s
From Figure E2.9, we observe that
and
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
Ff (s) = G2 (s)U (s)
FR (s) = G3 (s)U (s) .
Then, solving for U (s) yields
U (s) =
1
Ff (s)
G2 (s)
FR (s) =
G3 (s)
U (s) .
G2 (s)
and it follows that
Again, considering the block diagram in Figure E2.9 we determine
Ff (s) = G1 (s)G2 (s)[R(s) โ H2 (s)Ff (s) โ H2 (s)FR (s)] .
But, from the previous result, we substitute for FR (s) resulting in
Ff (s) = G1 (s)G2 (s)R(s)โG1 (s)G2 (s)H2 (s)Ff (s)โG1 (s)H2 (s)G3 (s)Ff (s) .
Solving for Ff (s) yields
G1 (s)G2 (s)
Ff (s) =
R(s) .
1 + G1 (s)G2 (s)H2 (s) + G1 (s)G3 (s)H2 (s)
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
28
CHAPTER 2
Mathematical Models of Systems
H2(s)
+ –
R(s)
U(s)
G2(s)
Ff (s)
U(s)
G3(s)
FR(s)
G1(s)
–
H2(s)
FIGURE E2.9
Block diagram model.
The shock absorber block diagram is shown in Figure E2.10. The closedloop transfer function model is
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
E2.10
T (s) =
Gc (s)Gp (s)G(s)
.
1 + H(s)Gc (s)Gp (s)G(s)
Controller
Gear Motor
Plunger and
Piston System
Gc(s)
Gp(s)
G(s)
+
R(s)
Desired piston
travel
–
Y(s)
Piston
travel
Sensor
H(s)
Piston travel
measurement
FIGURE E2.10
Shock absorber block diagram.
E2.11
Let f denote the spring force (n) and x denote the deflection (m). Then
K=
โf
.
โx
Computing the slope from the graph yields:
(a) xo = โ0.14m โ K = โf /โx = 10 n / 0.04 m = 250 n/m
(b) xo = 0m โ K = โf /โx = 10 n / 0.05 m = 200 n/m
(c) xo = 0.35m โ K = โf /โx = 3n / 0.05 m = 60 n/m
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
29
Exercises
E2.12
The signal flow graph is shown in Fig. E2.12. Find Y (s) when R(s) = 0.
-K
Td(s)
1
1
K2
G(s)
Y (s)
-1
FIGURE E2.12
Signal flow graph.
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
The transfer function from Td (s) to Y (s) is
Y (s) =
G(s)(1 โ K1 K2 )Td (s)
G(s)Td (s) โ K1 K2 G(s)Td (s)
=
.
1 โ (โK2 G(s))
1 + K2 G(s)
If we set
K1 K2 = 1 ,
then Y (s) = 0 for any Td (s).
E2.13
The transfer function from R(s), Td (s), and N (s) to Y (s) is
1
K
K
R(s)+ 2
Td (s)โ 2
N (s)
Y (s) = 2
s + 10s + K
s + 10s + K
s + 10s + K
Therefore, we find that
Y (s)/Td (s) =
E2.14
1
s2 + 10s + K
and
K
Y (s)/N (s) = โ 2
s + 10s + K
Since we want to compute the transfer function from R2 (s) to Y1 (s), we
can assume that R1 = 0 (application of the principle of superposition).
Then, starting at the output Y1 (s) we obtain
Y1 (s) = G3 (s) [โH1 (s)Y1 (s) + G2 (s)G8 (s)W (s) + G9 (s)W (s)] ,
or
[1 + G3 (s)H1 (s)] Y1 (s) = [G3 (s)G2 (s)G8 (s)W (s) + G3 (s)G9 (s)] W (s).
Considering the signal W (s) (see Figure E2.14), we determine that
W (s) = G5 (s) [G4 (s)R2 (s) โ H2 (s)W (s)] ,
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
30
CHAPTER 2
Mathematical Models of Systems
H1(s)
+
G1(s)
R1(s)
+
G7(s)
R2(s)
G4(s)
–
+
G2(s)
G3(s)
+
Y1(s)
G9(s)
G8(s)
+
+
G6(s)
G5(s)
Y2(s)
W(s)
–
FIGURE E2.14
Block diagram model.
or
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
H2(s)
[1 + G5 (s)H2 (s)] W (s) = G5 (s)G4 (s)R2 (s).
Substituting the expression for W (s) into the above equation for Y1 (s)
yields
Y1 (s)
G2 (s)G3 (s)G4 (s)G5 (s)G8 (s) + G3 (s)G4 (s)G5 (s)G9 (s)
=
.
R2 (s)
1 + G3 (s)H1 (s) + G5 (s)H2 (s) + G3 (s)G5 (s)H1 (s)H2 (s)
E2.15
For loop 1, we have
di1
1
R1 i1 + L1
+
dt
C1
Z
(i1 โ i2 )dt + R2 (i1 โ i2 ) = v(t) .
And for loop 2, we have
1
C2
E2.16
Z
di2
1
i2 dt + L2
+ R2 (i2 โ i1 ) +
dt
C1
Z
(i2 โ i1 )dt = 0 .
The transfer function from R(s) to P (s) is
P (s)
4.2
= 3
.
2
R(s)
s + 2s + 4s + 4.2
The block diagram is shown in Figure E2.16a. The corresponding signal
flow graph is shown in Figure E2.16b for
P (s)/R(s) =
4.2
s3 + 2s2 + 4s + 4.2
.
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
31
Exercises
v1(s)
R(s)
v2(s)
7
–
q(s)
0.6
s
1
s2+2s+4
P(s)
(a)
R(s )
1
V1
V2
7
1
s2 + 2 s + 4
0.6
s
P (s)
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
-1
(b)
FIGURE E2.16
(a) Block diagram, (b) Signal flow graph.
E2.17
A linear approximation for f is given by
โf =
โf
โx = 2kxo โx = kโx
โx x=xo
where xo = 1/2, โf = f (x) โ f (xo ), and โx = x โ xo .
E2.18
The linear approximation is given by
โy = mโx
where
m=
โy
.
โx x=xo
(a) When xo = 1, we find that yo = 2.4, and yo = 13.2 when xo = 2.
(b) The slope m is computed as follows:
m=
โy
= 1 + 4.2x2o .
โx x=xo
Therefore, m = 5.2 at xo = 1, and m = 18.8 at xo = 2.
ยฉ 2017 Pearson Education, Inc., Hoboken, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently
exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
32
CHAPTER 2
E2.19
Mathematical Models of Systems
The output (with a step input) is
Y (s) =
28(s + 1)
.
s(s + 7)(s + 2)
The partial fraction expansion is
Y (s) =
2
4.8
2.8
โ
+
.
s s+7 s+2
Taking the inverse Laplace transform yields
y(t) = 2 โ 4.8eโ7t + 2.8eโ2t .
E2.20
The input-output relationship is
where
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
Vo
A(K โ 1)
=
V
1 + AK
K=
Z1
.
Z1 + Z2
Assume A โซ 1. Then,
Vo
Kโ1
Z2
=
=โ
V
K
Z1
where
Z1 =
R1
R1 C 1 s + 1
and Z2 =
R2
.
R2 C 2 s + 1
Therefore,
Vo (s)
R2 (R1 C1 s + 1)
2(s + 1)
=โ
=โ
.
V (s)
R1 (R2 C2 s + 1)
s+2
E2.21
The equation of motion of the mass mc is
mc xฬp + (bd + bs )xฬp + kd xp = bd xฬin + kd xin .
Taking the Laplace transform with zero initial conditions yields
[mc s2 + (bd + bs )s + kd ]Xp (s) = [bd s + kd ]Xin (s) .
So, the transfer function is
bd s + kd
0.65s + 1.8
Xp (s)
=
= 2
.
Xin (s)
mc s2 + (bd + bs )s + kd
s + 1.55s + 1.8
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
33
Exercises
E2.22
The rotational velocity is
ฯ(s) =
2(s + 4)
1
.
2
(s + 5)(s + 1) s
Expanding in a partial fraction expansion yields
ฯ(s) =
81
1 1
3
13 1
1
+
โ
โ
.
2
5 s 40 s + 5 2 (s + 1)
8 s+1
Taking the inverse Laplace transform yields
ฯ(t) =
E2.23
8
1
3
13
+ eโ5t โ teโt โ eโt .
5 40
2
8
The closed-loop transfer function is
E2.24
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
Y (s)
K1 K2
= T (s) = 2
.
R(s)
s + (K1 + K2 K3 + K1 K2 )s + K1 K2 K3
Let x = 0.6 and y = 0.8. Then, with y = ax3 , we have
0.8 = a(0.6)3 .
Solving for a yields a = 3.704. A linear approximation is
y โ yo = 3ax2o (x โ xo )
or y = 4x โ 1.6, where yo = 0.8 and xo = 0.6.
E2.25
The closed-loop transfer function is
Y (s)
10
= T (s) = 2
.
R(s)
s + 21s + 10
E2.26
The equations of motion are
m1 xฬ1 + k(x1 โ x2 ) = F
m2 xฬ2 + k(x2 โ x1 ) = 0 .
Taking the Laplace transform (with zero initial conditions) and solving
for X2 (s) yields
X2 (s) =
k
(m2 s2 + k)(m1 s2 + k) โ k 2
F (s) .
Then, with m1 = m2 = k = 1, we have
X2 (s)/F (s) =
1
.
s2 (s2 + 2)
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
34
CHAPTER 2
E2.27
Mathematical Models of Systems
The transfer function from Td (s) to Y (s) is
Y (s)/Td (s) =
E2.28
G2 (s)
.
1 + G1 G2 H(s)
The transfer function is
Vo (s)
R2 R4
R2 R4 C
s+
= 46.08s + 344.91 .
=
V (s)
R3
R1 R3
E2.29
(a) If
G(s) =
1
s2 + 15s + 50
and
H(s) = 2s + 15 ,
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
then the closed-loop transfer function of Figure E2.28(a) and (b) (in
Dorf & Bishop) are equivalent.
(b) The closed-loop transfer function is
T (s) =
E2.30
1
s2 + 17s + 65
.
(a) The closed-loop transfer function is
T (s) =
15
G(s) 1
=
1 + G(s) s
s(s2 + 5s + 30)
where G(s) =
15
.
s2 + 5s + 15
0.7
0.6
Amplitude
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
Time (seconds)
2
2.5
FIGURE E2.30
Step response.
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
35
Exercises
(b) The output Y (s) (when R(s) = 1/s) is
Y (s) =
or
0.5 โ0.25 + 0.1282j
โ0.25 โ 0.1282j
+
+
s
s + 2.5 โ 4.8734 s + 2.5 + 4.8734j
1
Y (s) =
2
1
s+5
โ 2
s s + 5s + 30
(c) The plot of y(t) is shown in Figure E2.30. The output is given by
y(t) = 0.5(1 โ 1.1239eโ2.5t sin(4.8734t + 1.0968));
E2.31
The partial fraction expansion is
a
b
+
s + p1 s + p2
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
V (s) =
where p1 = 4 โ 22j and p2 = 4 + 22j. Then, the residues are
a = โ11.37j
b = 11.37j .
The inverse Laplace transform is
v(t) = โ11.37je(โ4+22j)t + 11.37je(โ4โ22j)t = 22.73eโ4t sin 22t .
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
36
CHAPTER 2
Mathematical Models of Systems
Problems
P2.1
The integrodifferential equations, obtained by Kirchoffโs voltage law to
each loop, are as follows:
R2 i1 +
1
C1
Z
i1 dt + L1
d(i1 โ i2 )
+ R1 (i1 โ i2 ) = v(t)
dt
R3 i2 +
1
C2
Z
i2 dt + R1 (i2 โ i1 ) + L1
(loop 1)
and
P2.2
d(i2 โ i1 )
=0
dt
(loop 2) .
The differential equations describing the system can be obtained by using
a free-body diagram analysis of each mass. For mass 1 and 2 we have
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
M1 yฬ1 + k12 (y1 โ y2 ) + byฬ1 + k1 y1 = F (t)
M2 yฬ2 + k12 (y2 โ y1 ) = 0 .
Using a force-current analogy, the analagous electric circuit is shown in
Figure P2.2, where Ci โ Mi , L1 โ 1/k1 , L12 โ 1/k12 , and R โ 1/b .
FIGURE P2.2
Analagous electric circuit.
P2.3
The differential equations describing the system can be obtained by using
a free-body diagram analysis of each mass. For mass 1 and 2 we have
M xฬ1 + kx1 + k(x1 โ x2 ) = F (t)
M xฬ2 + k(x2 โ x1 ) + bxฬ2 = 0 .
Using a force-current analogy, the analagous electric circuit is shown in
Figure P2.3, where
CโM
L โ 1/k
R โ 1/b .
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
37
Problems
FIGURE P2.3
Analagous electric circuit.
P2.4
(a) The linear approximation around vin = 0 is vo = 0vin , see Figure P2.4(a).
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
vo
.
e
W
eb
)
(b) The linear approximation around vin = 1 is vo = 2vin โ 1, see Figure P2.4(b).
(a)
0.4
(b)
4
3.5
0.3
3
0.2
2.5
vo
0.1
2
0
1.5
linear approximation
1
-0.1
0.5
-0.2
0
-0.3
-0.4
-1
linear approximation
-0.5
-0.5
0
vin
0.5
1
-1
-1
0
1
2
vin
FIGURE P2.4
Nonlinear functions and approximations.
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
38
CHAPTER 2
P2.5
Mathematical Models of Systems
Given
Q = K(P1 โ P2 )1/2 .
Let ฮดP = P1 โ P2 and ฮดPo = operating point. Using a Taylor series
expansion of Q, we have
Q = Qo +
โQ
(ฮดP โ ฮดPo ) + ยท ยท ยท
โฮดP ฮดP =ฮดPo
where
Qo = KฮดPo1/2
K
โQ
= ฮดPoโ1/2 .
โฮดP ฮดP =ฮดPo
2
and
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
Define โQ = Q โ Qo and โP = ฮดP โ ฮดPo . Then, dropping higher-order
terms in the Taylor series expansion yields
โQ = mโP
where
m=
P2.6
K
1/2
2ฮดPo
.
From P2.1 we have
and
R2 i1 +
1
C1
Z
i1 dt + L1
R3 i2 +
1
C2
Z
i2 dt + R1 (i2 โ i1 ) + L1
d(i1 โ i2 )
+ R1 (i1 โ i2 ) = v(t)
dt
d(i2 โ i1 )
=0.
dt
Taking the Laplace transform and using the fact that the initial voltage
across C2 is 10v yields
[R2 +
1
+ L1 s + R1 ]I1 (s) + [โR1 โ L1 s]I2 (s) = 0
C1 s
and
[โR1 โ L1 s]I1 (s) + [L1 s + R3 +
1
10
+ R1 ]I2 (s) = โ
.
C2 s
s
Rewriting in matrix form we have
๏ฃฎ
๏ฃฐ
R2 + C11 s + L1 s + R1
โR1 โ L1 s
โR1 โ L1 s
L1 s + R3 + C12 s + R1
๏ฃน๏ฃซ
๏ฃป๏ฃญ
I1 (s)
I2 (s)
๏ฃถ
๏ฃซ
๏ฃธ=๏ฃญ
0
โ10/s
๏ฃถ
๏ฃธ .
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
39
Problems
Solving for I2 yields
๏ฃซ
๏ฃถ
๏ฃฎ
๏ฃน๏ฃซ
๏ฃถ
1
0
R1 + L 1 s
1 ๏ฃฐ L1 s + R3 + C2 s + R1
๏ฃธ .
๏ฃญ
๏ฃธ=
๏ฃป๏ฃญ
1
โ
โ10/s
I2 (s)
R1 + L 1 s
R2 + C1 s + L1 s + R1
I1 (s)
or
I2 (s) =
โ10(R2 + 1/C1 s + L1 s + R1 )
sโ
where
P2.7
1
1
+ L1 s + R1 )(L1 s + R3 +
+ R1 ) โ (R1 + L1 s)2 .
C1 s
C2 s
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
โ = (R2 +
Consider the differentiating op-amp circuit in Figure P2.7. For an ideal
op-amp, the voltage gain (as a function of frequency) is
V2 (s) = โ
Z2 (s)
V1 (s),
Z1 (s)
where
Z1 =
R1
1 + R1 Cs
and Z2 = R2 are the respective circuit impedances. Therefore, we obtain
V2 (s) = โ
R2 (1 + R1 Cs)
V1 (s).
R1
Z
1
Z
C
R2
+
R1
2
+
+
V1(s)
V2(s)
–
–
FIGURE P2.7
Differentiating op-amp circuit.
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
40
CHAPTER 2
P2.8
Mathematical Models of Systems
Let
โ=
G1 + Cs
โCs
โG1
โCs
G2 + 2Cs
โCs
โG1
โCs
Cs + G1
.
Then,
Vj =
โij
I1
โ
V3
โ13 I1 /โ
=
.
V1
โ11 I1 /โ
or
Therefore, the transfer function is
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
โCs 2Cs + G2
T (s) =
โ13
V3
=
=
V1
โ11
โG1
โCs
2Cs + G2
โCs
โCs
Cs + G1
Pole-zero map (x:poles and o:zeros)
3
2
o
Imag Axis
1
0
x
x
-1
-2
-3
-8
o
-7
-6
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
Real Axis
FIGURE P2.8
Pole-zero map.
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
41
Problems
=
C 2 R1 R2 s2 + 2CR2 s + 1
.
C 2 R1 R2 s2 + (2R2 + R1 )Cs + 1
Using R1 = 1.0, R2 = 0.5, and C = 0.5, we have
T (s) =
(s + 2 + 2j)(s + 2 โ 2j)
s2 + 4s + 8
โ
โ .
=
2
s + 8s + 8
(s + 4 + 8)(s + 4 โ 8)
The pole-zero map is shown in Figure P2.8.
P2.9
From P2.3 we have
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
M xฬ1 + kx1 + k(x1 โ x2 ) = F (t)
M xฬ2 + k(x2 โ x1 ) + bxฬ2 = 0 .
Taking the Laplace transform of both equations and writing the result in
matrix form, it follows that
๏ฃฎ
M s2 + 2k
๏ฃฐ
โk
M s2 + bs + k
โk
๏ฃน๏ฃซ
๏ฃป๏ฃญ
X1 (s)
X2 (s)
๏ฃถ
๏ฃซ
๏ฃธ=๏ฃญ
F (s)
0
๏ฃถ
๏ฃธ ,
Pole zero map
0.4
0.3
0.2
Imag Axis
0.1
0
– 0.1
-0.2
-0.3
-0.4
-0.03
-0.025
-0.02
-0.015
Real Axis
-0.01
-0.005
0
FIGURE P2.9
Pole-zero map.
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
42
CHAPTER 2
Mathematical Models of Systems
or
๏ฃซ
๏ฃถ
๏ฃฎ
๏ฃน๏ฃซ
๏ฃถ
k
F (s)
1 ๏ฃฐ M s2 + bs + k
๏ฃญ
๏ฃธ=
๏ฃป๏ฃญ
๏ฃธ
2
โ
k
X2 (s)
M s + 2k
0
X1 (s)
where โ = (M s2 + bs + k)(M s2 + 2k) โ k 2 . So,
G(s) =
M s2 + bs + k
X1 (s)
=
.
F (s)
โ
When b/k = 1, M = 1 , b2 /M k = 0.04, we have
G(s) =
s2 + 0.04s + 0.04
.
s4 + 0.04s3 + 0.12s2 + 0.0032s + 0.0016
P2.10
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
The pole-zero map is shown in Figure P2.9.
From P2.2 we have
M1 yฬ1 + k12 (y1 โ y2 ) + byฬ1 + k1 y1 = F (t)
M2 yฬ2 + k12 (y2 โ y1 ) = 0 .
Taking the Laplace transform of both equations and writing the result in
matrix form, it follows that
๏ฃฎ
or
๏ฃฐ
๏ฃซ
M1 s2 + bs + k1 + k12
M2 s2 + k12
โk12
๏ฃถ
โk12
๏ฃน๏ฃซ
๏ฃป๏ฃญ
Y1 (s)
Y2 (s)
๏ฃถ
๏ฃซ
๏ฃธ=๏ฃญ
๏ฃฎ
F (s)
๏ฃน๏ฃซ
0
๏ฃถ
๏ฃธ
๏ฃถ
k12
F (s)
1 ๏ฃฐ M2 s2 + k12
๏ฃญ
๏ฃธ=
๏ฃป๏ฃญ
๏ฃธ
โ
Y2 (s)
k12
M1 s2 + bs + k1 + k12
0
Y1 (s)
where
2
โ = (M2 s2 + k12 )(M1 s2 + bs + k1 + k12 ) โ k12
.
So, when f (t) = a sin ฯo t, we have that Y1 (s) is given by
Y1 (s) =
aM2 ฯo (s2 + k12 /M2 )
.
(s2 + ฯo2 )โ(s)
For motionless response (in the steady-state), set the zero of the transfer
function so that
(s2 +
k12
) = s2 + ฯo2
M2
or
ฯo2 =
k12
.
M2
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
43
Problems
P2.11
The transfer functions from Vc (s) to Vd (s) and from Vd (s) to ฮธ(s) are:
K1 K2
, and
(Lq s + Rq )(Lc s + Rc )
Km
.
ฮธ(s)/Vd (s) =
2
(Js + f s)((Ld + La )s + Rd + Ra ) + K3 Km s
Vd (s)/Vc (s) =
The block diagram for ฮธ(s)/Vc (s) is shown in Figure P2.11, where
ฮธ(s)/Vc (s) =
K1 K2 Km
ฮธ(s) Vd (s)
=
,
Vd (s) Vc (s)
โ(s)
where
Vc
1
L cs+R c
Ic
K1
Vq
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
โ(s) = s(Lc s + Rc )(Lq s + Rq )((Js + b)((Ld + La )s + Rd + Ra ) + Km K3 ) .
1
L qs+R q
Iq
K2
Vd +
1
(L d+L a)s+R d+R a
Id
Tm
Km
–
1
Js+f
w
1
s
q
Vb
FIGURE P2.11
Block diagram.
P2.12
K3
The open-loop transfer function is
Y (s)
K
=
.
R(s)
s + 50
With R(s) = 1/s, we have
Y (s) =
K
.
s(s + 50)
The partial fraction expansion is
K
Y (s) =
50
1
1
โ
,
s s + 50
and the inverse Laplace transform is
y(t) =
K
1 โ eโ50t ,
50
As t โ โ, it follows that y(t) โ K/50. So we choose K = 50 so that y(t)
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
44
CHAPTER 2
Mathematical Models of Systems
approaches 1. Alternatively we can use the final value theorem to obtain
y(t)tโโ = lim sY (s) =
sโ0
K
.
50
It follows that choosing K = 50 leads to y(t) โ 1 as t โ โ.
P2.13
The motor torque is given by
Tm (s) = (Jm s2 + bm s)ฮธm (s) + (JL s2 + bL s)nฮธL (s)
= n((Jm s2 + bm s)/n2 + JL s2 + bL s)ฮธL (s)
where
But
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
n = ฮธL (s)/ฮธm (s) = gear ratio .
Tm (s) = Km Ig (s)
and
Ig (s) =
and
1
Vg (s) ,
(Lg + Lf )s + Rg + Rf
Vg (s) = Kg If (s) =
Kg
Vf (s) .
Rf + L f s
Combining the above expressions yields
ฮธL (s)
Kg Km
=
.
Vf (s)
nโ1 (s)โ2 (s)
where
โ1 (s) = JL s2 + bL s +
Jm s2 + bm s
n2
and
โ2 (s) = (Lg s + Lf s + Rg + Rf )(Rf + Lf s) .
P2.14
For a field-controlled dc electric motor we have
ฯ(s)/Vf (s) =
Km /Rf
.
Js + b
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
45
Problems
With a step input of Vf (s) = 80/s, the final value of ฯ(t) is
ฯ(t)tโโ = lim sฯ(s) =
sโ0
80Km
= 2.4
Rf b
or
Km
= 0.03 .
Rf b
Solving for ฯ(t) yields
ฯ(t) =
80Km โ1
1
L
Rf J
s(s + b/J)
=
80Km
(1โeโ(b/J)t ) = 2.4(1โeโ(b/J)t ) .
Rf b
At t = 1/2, ฯ(t) = 1, so
ฯ(1/2) = 2.4(1 โ eโ(b/J)t ) = 1 implies
b/J = 1.08 sec .
Therefore,
P2.15
0.0324
.
s + 1.08
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
ฯ(s)/Vf (s) =
Summing the forces in the vertical direction and using Newtonโs Second
Law we obtain
xฬ +
k
x=0.
m
The system has no damping and no external inputs. Taking the Laplace
transform yields
X(s) =
x0 s
,
2
s + k/m
where we used the fact that x(0) = x0 and xฬ(0) = 0. Then taking the
inverse Laplace transform yields
x(t) = x0 cos
P2.16
s
k
t.
m
(a) For mass 1 and 2, we have
M1 xฬ1 + K1 (x1 โ x2 ) + b1 (xฬ3 โ xฬ1 ) = 0
M2 xฬ2 + K2 (x2 โ x3 ) + b2 (xฬ3 โ xฬ2 ) + K1 (x2 โ x1 ) = 0 .
(b) Taking the Laplace transform yields
(M1 s2 + b1 s + K1 )X1 (s) โ K1 X2 (s) = b1 sX3 (s)
โK1 X1 (s) + (M2 s2 + b2 s + K1 + K2 )X2 (s) = (b2 s + K2 )X3 (s) .
(c) Let
G1 (s) = K2 + b2 s
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
46
CHAPTER 2
Mathematical Models of Systems
G2 (s) = 1/p(s)
G3 (s) = 1/q(s)
G4 (s) = sb1 ,
where
p(s) = s2 M2 + sf2 + K1 + K2
and
q(s) = s2 M1 + sf1 + K1 .
The signal flow graph is shown in Figure P2.16.
X3
G1
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
G4
G2
G3
X1
K1
K1
FIGURE P2.16
Signal flow graph.
(d) The transfer function from X3 (s) to X1 (s) is
X1 (s)
K1 G1 (s)G2 (s)G3 (s) + G4 (s)G3 (s)
=
.
X3 (s)
1 โ K12 G2 (s)G3 (s)
P2.17
Using Cramerโs rule, we have
๏ฃฎ
1 1.5
x1
๏ฃถ
๏ฃฐ
or
๏ฃซ
2
4
๏ฃน๏ฃซ
๏ฃป๏ฃญ
x1
x2
๏ฃถ
๏ฃซ
๏ฃธ=๏ฃญ
๏ฃฎ
6
11
๏ฃน๏ฃซ
๏ฃถ
๏ฃธ
๏ฃถ
1 ๏ฃฐ 4 โ1.5 ๏ฃป ๏ฃญ 6 ๏ฃธ
๏ฃญ
๏ฃธ=
โ โ2
x2
1
11
where โ = 4(1) โ 2(1.5) = 1 . Therefore,
x1 =
4(6) โ 1.5(11)
= 7.5
1
and x2 =
โ2(6) + 1(11)
= โ1 .
1
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
47
Problems
The signal flow graph is shown in Figure P2.17.
11
1/4
1
6
-1/2
X2
X1
-1.5
FIGURE P2.17
Signal flow graph.
So,
P2.18
6(1) โ 1.5( 11
4 )
= 7.5
3
1โ 4
Z2
Va
Y3
Ia
Z4
V2
Y1
-Y 3
-Z 2
-Y 1
FIGURE P2.18
Signal flow graph.
11( 14 ) + โ1
2 (6)
= โ1 .
3
1โ 4
The signal flow graph is shown in Figure P2.18.
I1
V1
and x2 =
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
x1 =
The transfer function is
V2 (s)
Y 1 Z2 Y 3 Z4
=
.
V1 (s)
1 + Y 1 Z2 + Y 3 Z2 + Y 3 Z4 + Y 1 Z2 Z4 Y 3
P2.19
(a) Assume Rg โซ Rs and Rs โซ R1 . Then Rs = R1 + R2 โ R2 , and
vgs = vin โ vo ,
where we neglect iin , since Rg โซ Rs . At node S, we have
vo
= gm vgs = gm (vin โ vo ) or
Rs
vo
gm Rs
=
.
vin
1 + gm Rs
(b) With gm Rs = 20, we have
vo
20
=
= 0.95 .
vin
21
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
48
CHAPTER 2
Mathematical Models of Systems
(c) The block diagram is shown in Figure P2.19.
vin(s)
vo(s)
gmRs
–
FIGURE P2.19
Block diagram model.
P2.20
From the geometry we find that
l2
l1 โ l2
(x โ y) โ y .
l1
l1
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
โz = k
The flow rate balance yields
A
dy
= pโz
dt
which implies
Y (s) =
pโZ(s)
.
As
By combining the above results it follows that
Y (s) =
p
l1 โ l2
l2
k
(X(s) โ Y (s)) โ Y (s) .
As
l1
l1
Therefore, the signal flow graph is shown in Figure P2.20. Using Masonโs
-1
(l 1 – l 2)/l 1
k
X
DZ
p/As
Y
1
-l 2 / l 1
FIGURE P2.20
Signal flow graph.
gain formula we find that the transfer function is given by
k(l1 โl2 )p
Y (s)
K1
l1 As
=
=
,
k(l
โl
)p
l
p
X(s)
s + K2 + K1
1+ 2 + 1 2
l1 As
l1 As
where
K1 =
k(l1 โ l2 )p
p
l1 A
and K2 =
l2 p
.
l1 A
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
49
Problems
P2.21
(a) The equations of motion for the two masses are
2
L
L
(ฮธ1 โ ฮธ2 ) = f (t)
2
2
2
L
M L2 ฮธยจ2 + M gLฮธ2 + k
(ฮธ2 โ ฮธ1 ) = 0 .
2
M L2 ฮธยจ1 + M gLฮธ1 + k
a
–
F (t)
w1
1/s
1/s
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
1/2ML
(a)
q1
b
w2
1/s
1/s
q2
a
Imag(s)
+ j
(b)
g
k
L + 4M
+ j
g
k
L + 2M
+ j
g
L
X
O
X
Re(s)
FIGURE P2.21
(a) Block diagram. (b) Pole-zero map.
With ฮธห1 = ฯ1 and ฮธห2 = ฯ2 , we have
g
k
ฯห1 = โ
+
L 4M
ฮธ1 +
k
f (t)
ฮธ2 +
4M
2M L
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
50
CHAPTER 2
Mathematical Models of Systems
ฯห2 =
k
ฮธ1 โ
4M
k
g
+
L 4M
ฮธ2 .
(b) Define a = g/L + k/4M and b = k/4M . Then
ฮธ1 (s)
1
s2 + a
.
=
F (s)
2M L (s2 + a)2 โ b2
(c) The block diagram and pole-zero map are shown in Figure P2.21.
For a noninverting op-amp circuit, depicted in Figure P2.22a, the voltage
gain (as a function of frequency) is
P2.22
Z1 (s) + Z2 (s)
Vin (s),
Z1 (s)
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
Vo (s) =
where Z1 (s) and Z2 (s) are the impedances of the respective circuits. In
Z2
Z1
+
vin
(a)
v0
+
vin
v0
(b)
FIGURE P2.22
(a) Noninverting op-amp circuit. (b) Voltage follower circuit.
the case of the voltage follower circuit, shown in Figure P2.22b, we have
Z1 = โ (open circuit) and Z2 = 0. Therefore, the transfer function is
Vo (s)
Z1
=
= 1.
Vin (s)
Z1
P2.23
The input-output ratio, Vce /Vin , is found to be
ฮฒ(R โ 1) + hie Rf
Vce
=
.
Vin
โฮฒhre + hie (โhoe + Rf )
P2.24
(a) The voltage gain is given by
vo
RL ฮฒ1 ฮฒ2 (R1 + R2 )
=
.
vin
(R1 + R2 )(Rg + hie1 ) + R1 (R1 + R2 )(1 + ฮฒ1 ) + R1 RL ฮฒ1 ฮฒ2
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
51
Problems
(b) The current gain is found to be
ic2
= ฮฒ1 ฮฒ2 .
ib1
(c) The input impedance is
vin
(R1 + R2 )(Rg + hie1 ) + R1 (R1 + R2 )(1 + ฮฒ1 ) + R1 RL ฮฒ1 ฮฒ2
=
,
ib1
R1 + R2
and when ฮฒ1 ฮฒ2 is very large, we have the approximation
vin
RL R1 ฮฒ1 ฮฒ2
โ
.
ib1
R1 + R2
The transfer function from R(s) and Td (s) to Y (s) is given by
1
(G(s)R(s) + Td (s)) + Td (s) + G(s)R(s)
G(s)
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
P2.25
Y (s) = G(s) R(s) โ
= G(s)R(s) .
Thus,
Y (s)/R(s) = G(s) .
Also, we have that
Y (s) = 0 .
when R(s) = 0. Therefore, the effect of the disturbance, Td (s), is eliminated.
P2.26
The equations of motion for the two mass model of the robot are
M xฬ + b(xฬ โ yฬ) + k(x โ y) = F (t)
myฬ + b(yฬ โ xฬ) + k(y โ x) = 0 .
Taking the Laplace transform and writing the result in matrix form yields
๏ฃฎ
๏ฃฐ
M s2 + bs + k
โ(bs + k)
โ(bs + k)
ms2 + bs + k
๏ฃน๏ฃฎ
๏ฃป๏ฃฐ
X(s)
Y (s)
๏ฃน
๏ฃฎ
๏ฃป=๏ฃฐ
F (s)
0
๏ฃน
๏ฃป .
Solving for Y (s) we find that
1
Y (s)
mM (bs +k)
.
=
b
F (s)
s2 [s2 + 1 + m
s+ k ]
M
m
m
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
52
CHAPTER 2
P2.27
Mathematical Models of Systems
The describing equation of motion is
i2
mzฬ = mg โ k 2 .
z
Defining
f (z, i) = g โ
ki2
mz 2
leads to
zฬ = f (z, i) .
The equilibrium condition for io and zo , found by solving the equation of
motion when
is
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
zฬ = zฬ = 0 ,
ki2o
= zo2 .
mg
We linearize the equation of motion using a Taylor series approximation.
With the definitions
โz = z โ zo
and โi = i โ io ,
ห = zฬ and โz
ยจ = zฬ. Therefore,
we have โz
ยจ = f (z, i) = f (zo , io ) + โf z=z โz + โf z=z โi + ยท ยท ยท
โz
โz i=ioo
โi i=ioo
But f (zo , io ) = 0, and neglecting higher-order terms in the expansion
yields
2
ยจ = 2kio โz โ 2kio โi .
โz
mzo3
mzo2
Using the equilibrium condition which relates zo to io , we determine that
ยจ = 2g โz โ g โi .
โz
zo
io
Taking the Laplace transform yields the transfer function (valid around
the equilibrium point)
โZ(s)
โg/io
= 2
.
โI(s)
s โ 2g/zo
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
53
Problems
P2.28
The signal flow graph is shown in Figure P2.28.
-d
G
B
+c
+b
P
D
+a
-m
+e
-k
M
+g
+f
+h
S
C
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
FIGURE P2.28
Signal flow graph.
(a) The PGBDP loop gain is equal to -abcd. This is a negative transmission since the population produces garbage which increases bacteria
and leads to diseases, thus reducing the population.
(b) The PMCP loop gain is equal to +efg. This is a positive transmission since the population leads to modernization which encourages
immigration, thus increasing the population.
(c) The PMSDP loop gain is equal to +ehkd. This is a positive transmission since the population leads to modernization and an increase
in sanitation facilities which reduces diseases, thus reducing the rate
of decreasing population.
(d) The PMSBDP loop gain is equal to +ehmcd. This is a positive transmission by similar argument as in (3).
P2.29
Assume the motor torque is proportional to the input current
Tm = ki .
Then, the equation of motion of the beam is
J ฯฬ = ki ,
where J is the moment of inertia of the beam and shaft (neglecting the
inertia of the ball). We assume that forces acting on the ball are due to
gravity and friction. Hence, the motion of the ball is described by
mxฬ = mgฯ โ bxฬ
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
54
CHAPTER 2
Mathematical Models of Systems
where m is the mass of the ball, b is the coefficient of friction, and we
have assumed small angles, so that sin ฯ โ ฯ. Taking the Laplace transfor
of both equations of motion and solving for X(s) yields
X(s)/I(s) =
P2.30
gk/J
s2 (s2 + b/m)
.
Given
H(s) =
k
ฯs + 1
where ฯ = 5ยตs = 4 ร 10โ6 seconds and 0.999 โค k < 1.001. The step
response is
k
1
k
k
ยท = โ
.
ฯs + 1 s
s s + 1/ฯ
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
Y (s) =
Taking the inverse Laplace transform yields
y(t) = k โ keโt/ฯ = k(1 โ eโt/ฯ ) .
The final value is k. The time it takes to reach 98% of the final value is
t = 19.57ยตs independent of k.
P2.31
From the block diagram we have
Y1 (s) = G2 (s)[G1 (s)E1 (s) + G3 (s)E2 (s)]
= G2 (s)G1 (s)[R1 (s) โ H1 (s)Y1 (s)] + G2 (s)G3 (s)E2 (s) .
Therefore,
Y1 (s) =
G1 (s)G2 (s)
G2 (s)G3 (s)
R1 (s) +
E2 (s) .
1 + G1 (s)G2 (s)H1 (s)
1 + G1 (s)G2 (s)H1 (s)
And, computing E2 (s) (with R2 (s) = 0) we find
G4 (s)
E2 (s) = H2 (s)Y2 (s) = H2 (s)G6 (s)
Y1 (s) + G5 (s)E2 (s)
G2 (s)
or
E2 (s) =
G4 (s)G6 (s)H2 (s)
Y1 (s) .
G2 (s)(1 โ G5 (s)G6 (s)H2 (s))
Substituting E2 (s) into equation for Y1 (s) yields
Y1 (s) =
G1 (s)G2 (s)
R1 (s)
1 + G1 (s)G2 (s)H1 (s)
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
55
Problems
+
G3 (s)G4 (s)G6 (s)H2 (s)
Y1 (s) .
(1 + G1 (s)G2 (s)H1 (s))(1 โ G5 (s)G6 (s)H2 (s))
Finally, solving for Y1 (s) yields
Y1 (s) = T1 (s)R1 (s)
where
T1 (s) =
G1 (s)G2 (s)(1 โ G5 (s)G6 (s)H2 (s))
(1 + G1 (s)G2 (s)H1 (s))(1 โ G5 (s)G6 (s)H2 (s)) โ G3 (s)G4 (s)G6 (s)H2 (s)
.
.
Similarly, for Y2 (s) we obtain
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
Y2 (s) = T2 (s)R1 (s) .
where
T2 (s) =
P2.32
G1 (s)G4 (s)G6 (s)
(1 + G1 (s)G2 (s)H1 (s))(1 โ G5 (s)G6 (s)H2 (s)) โ G3 (s)G4 (s)G6 (s)H2 (s)
The signal flow graph shows three loops:
L1 = โG1 G3 G4 H2
L2 = โG2 G5 G6 H1
L3 = โH1 G8 G6 G2 G7 G4 H2 G1 .
The transfer function Y2 /R1 is found to be
Y2 (s)
G1 G8 G6 โ1 โ G2 G5 G6 โ2
=
,
R1 (s)
1 โ (L1 + L2 + L3 ) + (L1 L2 )
where for path 1
โ1 = 1
and for path 2
โ 2 = 1 โ L1 .
Since we want Y2 to be independent of R1 , we need Y2 /R1 = 0. Therefore,
we require
G1 G8 G6 โ G2 G5 G6 (1 + G1 G3 G4 H2 ) = 0 .
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
56
CHAPTER 2
P2.33
Mathematical Models of Systems
The closed-loop transfer function is
G3 (s)G1 (s)(G2 (s) + K5 K6 )
Y (s)
=
.
R(s)
1 โ G3 (s)(H1 (s) + K6 ) + G3 (s)G1 (s)(G2 (s) + K5 K6 )(H2 (s) + K4 )
P2.34
The equations of motion are
m1 yฬ1 + b(yฬ1 โ yฬ2 ) + k1 (y1 โ y2 ) = 0
m2 yฬ2 + b(yฬ2 โ yฬ1 ) + k1 (y2 โ y1 ) + k2 y2 = k2 x
Taking the Laplace transform yields
(m1 s2 + bs + k1 )Y1 (s) โ (bs + k1 )Y2 (s) = 0
(m2 s2 + bs + k1 + k2 )Y2 (s) โ (bs + k1 )Y1 (s) = k2 X(s)
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
Therefore, after solving for Y1 (s)/X(s), we have
Y2 (s)
k2 (bs + k1 )
=
.
2
X(s)
(m1 s + bs + k1 )(m2 s2 + bs + k1 + k2 ) โ (bs + k1 )2
P2.35
(a) We can redraw the block diagram as shown in Figure P2.35. Then,
T (s) =
K1 /s(s + 1)
K1
= 2
.
1 + K1 (1 + K2 s)/s(s + 1)
s + (1 + K2 K1 )s + K2
(b) The signal flow graph reveals two loops (both touching):
L1 =
โK1
s(s + 1)
and
L2 =
โK1 K2
.
s+1
Therefore,
T (s) =
K1 /s(s + 1)
K1
= 2
.
1 + K1 /s(s + 1) + K1 K2 /(s + 1)
s + (1 + K2 K1 )s + K1
(c) We want to choose K1 and K2 such that
s2 + (1 + K2 K1 )s + K1 = s2 + 20s + 100 = (s + 10)2 .
Therefore, K1 = 100 and 1 + K2 K1 = 20 or K2 = 0.19.
(d) The step response is shown in Figure P2.35.
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
57
Problems
R(s )
K1
s (s+1)
+
Y (s)
1 +K 2s
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
<—- time to 90% = 0.39 sec
y(t)
0.6
0.5
0.4
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
time(sec)
FIGURE P2.35
The equivalent block diagram and the system step response.
P2.36
(a) Given R(s) = 1/s2 , the partial fraction expansion is
Y (s) =
30
s2 (s + 5)(s2 + 4s + 6)
=
0.1091 0.7576(s + 3.4) 1 0.8667
โ 2
+ 2โ
.
s+5
s + 4s + 6
s
s
Therefore, using the Laplace transform table, we determine that the
ramp response for t โฅ 0 is
!
โ
โ
โ
6 โ5t 25 โ2t
7 2
13
y(t) =
e
+ e
cos 2t +
sin 2t + t โ .
55
33
10
15
(b) For the ramp input, y(t) โ 0.25 at t = 1 second (see Figure P2.36a).
(c) Given R(s) = 1, the partial fraction expansion is
Y (s) =
30
30 1
30
sโ1
=
โ
.
2
2
(s + 5)(s + 4s + 6)
11 s + 5 11 s + 4s + 6
Therefore, using the Laplace transform table, we determine that the
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
58
CHAPTER 2
Mathematical Models of Systems
impulse response for t โฅ 0 is
!
โ
โ
โ
30 โ5t 30 โ2t
3 2
e
โ e
cos 2t โ
sin 2t) .
y(t) =
11
11
2
(d) For the impulse input, y(t) โ 0.73 at t = 1 seconds (see Figure P2.36b).
(a) Ramp input
(b) Impulse input
1.2
3
1
2.5
0.8
2
0.6
1.5
0.4
1
0.2
0.5
0
y(t)
T
an his
th d wo
or eir is p rk
w sa co ro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
y(t)
.
e
W
eb
)
3.5
0
0
1
2
Time (s)
3
โ0.2
4
0
1
2
Time (s)
3
4
FIGURE P2.36
(a) Ramp input response. (b) Impulse input response.
P2.37
The equations of motion are
m1
d2 x
= โ(k1 + k2 )x + k2 y
dt2
and
m2
d2 y
= k2 (x โ y) + u .
dt2
When m1 = m2 = 1 and k1 = k2 = 1, we have
d2 x
= โ2x + y
dt2
and
d2 y
=xโy+u .
dt2
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
59
Problems
P2.38
The equation of motion for the system is
J
dฮธ
d2 ฮธ
+ b + kฮธ = 0 ,
2
dt
dt
where k is the rotational spring constant and b is the viscous friction
coefficient. The initial conditions are ฮธ(0) = ฮธo and ฮธฬ(0) = 0. Taking the
Laplace transform yields
J(s2 ฮธ(s) โ sฮธo ) + b(sฮธ(s) โ ฮธo ) + kฮธ(s) = 0 .
Therefore,
ฮธ(s) =
(s + Jb ฮธo )
(s2 + Jb s + K
J)
=
(s + 2ฮถฯn )ฮธo
.
s2 + 2ฮถฯn s + ฯn2
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
Neglecting the mass of the rod, the moment of inertia is detemined to be
J = 2M r 2 = 0.5 kg ยท m2 .
Also,
s
ฯn =
k
= 0.02 rad/s
J
and ฮถ =
b
= 0.01 .
2Jฯn
Solving for ฮธ(t), we find that
q
ฮธo
โฮถฯn t
ฮธ(t) = p
e
sin(ฯ
1 โ ฮถ 2 t + ฯ) ,
n
1 โ ฮถ2
where tan ฯ =
p
1 โ ฮถ 2 /ฮถ). Therefore, the envelope decay is
ฮธo
ฮธe = p
eโฮถฯn t .
2
1โฮถ
So, with ฮถฯn = 2 ร 10โ4 , ฮธo = 4000o and ฮธf = 10o , the elapsed time is
computed as
t=
P2.39
1
ฮธo
ln p
= 8.32 hours .
ฮถฯn
1 โ ฮถ 2 ฮธf
When t < 0, we have the steady-state conditions
6
i1 (0) = A ,
7
va (0) =
12
V
7
and
vc (0) =
36
V ,
7
where vc (0) is associated with the 0.75F capacitor. After t โฅ 0, we have
1.5
di1
+ 2i1 + 5(i1 โ i2 ) = 10eโ2t
dt
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
60
CHAPTER 2
Mathematical Models of Systems
and
0.75
Z
i2 dt + 10i2 + 5(i2 โ i1 ) โ i1 = 0 .
Taking the Laplace transform (using the initial conditions) yields
1.5(sI1 (s) โ i1 (0)) + 2I1 (s) + 5I1 (s) โ 5I2 (s) =
10
s+2
or
s+
10
18s + 176
14
I1 (s) โ I2 (s) =
3
3
21(s + 2)
and
or
1
I2 (s) โ vc (0) + 10I2 (s) + 5(I2 (s) โ I1 (s)) = I1 (s)
s
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
3
4
โ24sI1 (s) + (60s + 3)I2 (s) =
108
s.
7
Solving for I2 (s) yields
I2 (s) =
4s(27s2 + 216s + 604)
.
7(s + 2)(60s2 + 203s + 14)
Then, Vo (s) = 10I2 (s).
P2.40
The equations of motion are
J1 ฮธฬ1 = K(ฮธ2 โ ฮธ1 ) โ b(ฮธฬ1 โ ฮธฬ2 ) + T
and J2 ฮธฬ2 = b(ฮธฬ1 โ ฮธฬ2 ) .
Taking the Laplace transform yields
(J1 s2 + bs + K)ฮธ1 (s) โ bsฮธ2 (s) = Kฮธ2 (s) + T (s)
and (J2 s2 + bs)ฮธ2 (s) โ bsฮธ1 (s) = 0. Solving for ฮธ1 (s) and ฮธ2 (s), we find
that
ฮธ1 (s) =
(Kฮธ2 (s) + T (s))(J2 s + b)
โ(s)
and
ฮธ2 (s) =
b(Kฮธ2 (s) + T (s))
,
โ(s)
where โ(s) = J1 J2 s3 + b(J1 + J2 )s2 + J2 Ks + bK.
P2.41
Assume that the only external torques acting on the rocket are control
torques, Tc and disturbance torques, Td , and assume small angles, ฮธ(t).
Using the small angle approximation, we have
hฬ = V ฮธ
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
61
Problems
J ฮธฬ = Tc + Td ,
where J is the moment of inertia of the rocket and V is the rocket velocity
(assumed constant). Now, suppose that the control torque is proportional
to the lateral displacement, as
Tc (s) = โKH(s) ,
where the negative sign denotes a negative feedback system. The corresponding block diagram is shown in Figure P2.41.
Td
K
+
Tc
+
+
–
1
Js 2
V
s
H( s)
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
H desired=0
FIGURE P2.41
Block diagram.
P2.42
(a) The equation of motion of the motor is
J
dฯ
= Tm โ bฯ ,
dt
where J = 0.1, b = 0.06, and Tm is the motor input torque.
(b) Given Tm (s) = 1/s, and ฯ(0) = 0.7, we take the Laplace transform
of the equation of motion yielding
sฯ(s) โ ฯ(0) + 0.6ฯ(s) = 10Tm
or
ฯ(s) =
0.7s + 10
.
s(s + 0.6)
Then, computing the partial fraction expansion, we find that
ฯ(s) =
A
B
16.67
15.97
+
=
โ
.
s
s + 0.6
s
s + 0.6
The step response, determined by taking the inverse Laplace transform, is
ฯ(t) = 16.67 โ 15.97eโ0.6t ,
tโฅ0.
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
62
CHAPTER 2
P2.43
Mathematical Models of Systems
The work done by each gear is equal to that of the other, therefore
Tm ฮธm = TL ฮธL .
Also, the travel distance is the same for each gear, so
r1 ฮธ m = r2 ฮธ L .
The number of teeth on each gear is proportional to the radius, or
r1 N 2 = r2 N 1 .
So,
and
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
ฮธm
r2
N2
=
=
,
ฮธL
r1
N1
N1 ฮธ m = N2 ฮธ L
N1
ฮธL =
ฮธm = nฮธm ,
N2
where
n = N1 /N2 .
Finally,
Tm
ฮธL
N1
=
=
=n.
TL
ฮธm
N2
P2.44
The inertia of the load is
JL =
ฯฯLr 4
.
2
Also, from the dynamics we have
T2 = JL ฯฬ2 + bL ฯ2
and
T1 = nT2 = n(JL ฯฬ2 + bL ฯ2 ) .
So,
T1 = n2 (JL ฯฬ1 + bL ฯ1 ) ,
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
63
Problems
since
ฯ2 = nฯ1 .
Therefore, the torque at the motor shaft is
T = T1 + Tm = n2 (JL ฯฬ1 + bL ฯ1 ) + Jm ฯฬ1 + bm ฯ1 .
P2.45
Let U (s) denote the human input and F (s) the load input. The transfer
function is
P (s) =
G(s) + KG1 (s)
Gc (s) + KG1 (s)
U (s) +
F (s) ,
โ(s)
โ(s)
where
P2.46
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
โ = 1 + GH(s) + G1 KBH(s) + Gc E(s) + G1 KE(s) .
Consider the application of Newtonโs law (
mv we obtain
P
F = mxฬ). From the mass
mv xฬ1 = F โ k1 (x1 โ x2 ) โ b1 (xฬ1 โ xฬ2 ).
Taking the Laplace transform, and solving for X1 (s) yields
X1 (s) =
b1 s + k1
1
F (s) +
X2 (s),
โ1 (s)
โ1 (s)
where
โ1 := mv s2 + b1 s + k1 .
From the mass mt we obtain
mt xฬ2 = โk2 x2 โ b2 xฬ2 + k1 (x1 โ x2 ) + b1 (xฬ1 โ xฬ2 ).
Taking the Laplace transform, and solving for X2 (s) yields
X2 (s) =
b1 s + k1
X1 (s),
โ2 (s)
where
โ2 := mt s2 + (b1 + b2 )s + k1 + k2 .
Substituting X2 (s) above into the relationship fpr X1 (s) yields the transfer function
โ2 (s)
X1 (s)
=
.
F (s)
โ1 (s)โ2 (s) โ (b1 s + k1 )2
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
64
CHAPTER 2
P2.47
Mathematical Models of Systems
Using the following relationships
h(t) =
Z
(1.6ฮธ(t) โ h(t))dt
ฯ(t) = ฮธฬ(t)
J ฯฬ(t) = Km ia (t)
va (t) = 50vi (t) = 10ia (t) + vb (t)
ฮธฬ = Kvb
we find the differential equation is
Km
d3 h
+ 1+
3
dt
10JK
d2 h
Km dh
8Km
+
=
vi .
2
dt
10JK dt
J
(a) The transfer function is
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
P2.48
V2 (s)
(1 + sR1 C1 )(1 + sR2 C2 )
=
.
V1 (s)
R1 C 2 s
(b) When R1 = 250 kโฆ, R2 = 200 kโฆ, C1 = 2 ยตF and C2 = 0.1 ยตF , we
have
V2 (s)
0.4s2 + 20.8s + 40
=
.
V1 (s)
s
(c) The partial fraction expansion is
40
V2 (s)
= 20.8 +
+ 0.4s .
V1 (s)
s
P2.49
(a) The closed-loop transfer function is
T (s) =
G(s)
5000
= 3
.
2
1 + G(s)
s + 20s + 1000s + 5000
(b) The poles of T (s) are s1 = โ5.43 and s2,3 = โ7.28 ยฑ j29.46.
(c) The partial fraction expansion (with a step input) is
Y (s) =
1
1.06
0.0285 + 0.0904j
0.0285 โ 0.0904j
โ
+
+
,
s s + 5.43 s + 7.28 โ j29.46 s + 7.28 + j29.46
and
y(t) = 1 โ 1.06eโ5.43t + 0.06eโ7.28t (cos 29.46t โ 3.17 sin 29.46t) ;
(d) The step response is shown in Figure P2.49. The real and complex
roots are close together and by looking at the poles in the s-plane we
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
65
Problems
1
0.9
0.8
Amplitude
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
0.2
0.1
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
Time (seconds)
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
FIGURE P2.49
Step response.
have difficulty deciding which is dominant. However, the residue at
the real pole is much larger and thus dominates the response.
P2.50
(a) The closed-loop transfer function is
T (s) =
14000
s3 + 45s2 + 3100s + 14500
.
(b) The poles of T (s) are
s1 = โ5 and
s2,3 = โ20 ยฑ j50.
(c) The partial fraction expansion (with a step input) is
Y (s) =
0.9655 1.0275 0.0310 โ 0.0390j
0.0310 + 0.0390j
โ
+
+
.
s
s+5
s + 20 + j50
s + 20 โ j50
(d) The step response is shown in Figure P2.50. The real root dominates
the response.
(e) The final value of y(t) is
yss = lim sY (s) = 0.9655 .
sโ0
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
66
CHAPTER 2
Mathematical Models of Systems
1
0.9
0.8
Amplitude
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
0.2
Time (secs)
FIGURE P2.50
Step response.
P2.51
Consider the free body diagram in Figure P2.51. Using Newtonโs Law
and summing the forces on the two masses yields
M1 xฬ(t) + b1 xฬ(t) + k1 x(t) = b1 yฬ(t)
M2 yฬ(t) + b1 yฬ(t) + k2 y(t) = b1 xฬ(t) + u(t)
k1x
M1
k1
x
. .
b1(x – y)
k2
M1
x
. .
b1(y – x) k2 y
b1
M2
M2
y
y
u(t)
u(t)
FIGURE P2.51
Free body diagram.
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
67
Advanced Problems
Advanced Problems
AP2.1
The transfer function from V (s) to ฯ(s) has the form
ฯ(s)
Km
=
.
V (s)
ฯm s + 1
In the steady-state,
ฯss = lim s
sโ0
Km
5
= 5Km .
ฯm s + 1 s
So,
Km = 70/5 = 14 .
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
Also,
ฯ(t) = Vm Km (1 โ eโt/ฯm )
where V (s) = Vm /s. Solving for ฯm yields
ฯm =
โt
.
ln(1 โ ฯ(t)/ฯss )
When t = 2, we have
ฯm =
โ2
= 3.57 .
ln(1 โ 30/70)
Therefore, the transfer function is
ฯ(s)
14
=
.
V (s)
3.57s + 1
AP2.2
The closed-loop transfer function form R1 (s) to Y2 (s) is
Y2 (s)
G1 G4 G5 (s) + G1 G2 G3 G4 G6 (s)
=
R1 (s)
โ
where
โ = [1 + G3 G4 H2 (s)][1 + G1 G2 H3 (s)] .
If we select
G5 (s) = โG2 G3 G6 (s)
then the numerator is zero, and Y2 (s)/R1 (s) = 0. The system is now
decoupled.
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
68
CHAPTER 2
AP2.3
Mathematical Models of Systems
(a) Computing the closed-loop transfer function:
G(s)Gc (s)
R(s) .
Y (s) =
1 + Gc (s)G(s)H(s)
Then, with E(s) = R(s) โ Y (s) we obtain
E(s) =
1 + Gc (s)G(s)(H(s) โ 1)
R(s) .
1 + Gc (s)G(s)H(s)
If we require that E(s) โก 0 for any input, we need 1 + Gc (s)G(s)(H(s) โ
1) = 0 or
H(s) =
Gc (s)G(s) โ 1
n(s)
=
.
Gc (s)G(s)
d(s)
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
Since we require H(s) to be a causal system, the order of the numerator
polynomial, n(s), must be less than or equal to the order of the denominator polynomial, d(s). This will be true, in general, only if both Gc (s)
and G(s) are proper rational functions (that is, the numerator and denominator polynomials have the same order). Therefore, making E โก 0
for any input R(s) is possible only in certain circumstances.
(b) The transfer function from Td (s) to Y (s) is
Gd (s)G(s)
Y (s) =
Td (s) .
1 + Gc (s)G(s)H(s)
With H(s) as in part (a) we have
Gd (s)
Y (s) =
Td (s) .
Gc (s)
(c) No. Since
Y (s) =
Gd (s)G(s)
Td (s) = T (s)Td (s) ,
1 + Gc (s)G(s)H(s)
the only way to have Y (s) โก 0 for any Td (s) is for the transfer function
T (s) โก 0 which is not possible in general (since G(s) 6= 0).
AP2.4
(a) With q(s) = 1/s we obtain
ฯ (s) =
1/Ct
s + QS+1/R
Ct
ยท
1
.
s
Define
ฮฑ :=
QS + 1/R
Ct
and
ฮฒ := 1/Ct .
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
69
Advanced Problems
Then, it follows that
ฯ (s) =
ฮฒ
1
โฮฒ/ฮฑ ฮฒ/ฮฑ
ยท =
+
.
s+ฮฑ s
s+ฮฑ
s
Taking the inverse Laplace transform yields
ฯ (t) =
ฮฒ
โฮฒ โฮฑt ฮฒ
e
+ = [1 โ eโฮฑt ] .
ฮฑ
ฮฑ
ฮฑ
1
(b) As t โ โ, ฯ (t) โ ฮฑฮฒ = Qs+1/R
.
(c) To increase the speed of response, you want to choose Ct , Q, S and
R such that
ฮฑ :=
Qs + 1/R
Ct
AP2.5
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
is โlarge.โ
Considering the motion of each mass, we have
M3 xฬ3 + b3 xฬ3 + k3 x3 = u3 + b3 xฬ2 + k3 x2
M2 xฬ2 + (b2 + b3 )xฬ2 + (k2 + k3 )x2 = u2 + b3 xฬ3 + k3 x3 + b2 xฬ1 + k2 x1
M1 xฬ1 + (b1 + b2 )xฬ1 + (k1 + k2 )x1 = u1 + b2 xฬ2 + k2 x2
In matrix form the three equations can be written as
๏ฃฎ
๏ฃฏ M1
๏ฃฏ
๏ฃฏ 0
๏ฃฏ
๏ฃฐ
0
0
M2
0
๏ฃน๏ฃซ
๏ฃถ
๏ฃฎ
M3
๏ฃป๏ฃญ
xฬ3
๏ฃธ
๏ฃฐ
0
โb3
b3
๏ฃฏ k1 + k2
0
๏ฃฏ
โk2
โk2
โk3
k3
๏ฃฎ
+๏ฃฏ
๏ฃฏ
๏ฃฐ
AP2.6
๏ฃน๏ฃซ
๏ฃถ
0 ๏ฃบ ๏ฃฌ xฬ1 ๏ฃท ๏ฃฏ b1 + b2
โb2
0 ๏ฃบ ๏ฃฌ xฬ1 ๏ฃท
๏ฃบ๏ฃฌ
๏ฃท ๏ฃฏ
๏ฃบ๏ฃฌ
๏ฃท
๏ฃฌ
๏ฃท ๏ฃฏ
๏ฃฌ
๏ฃท
0 ๏ฃบ
b2 + b3 โb3 ๏ฃบ
๏ฃบ ๏ฃฌ xฬ2 ๏ฃท + ๏ฃฏ โb2
๏ฃบ ๏ฃฌ xฬ2 ๏ฃท
0
๏ฃป๏ฃญ
xฬ3
๏ฃน๏ฃซ
๏ฃธ
๏ฃถ
๏ฃซ
๏ฃธ
๏ฃญ
๏ฃบ ๏ฃฌ x1 ๏ฃท
๏ฃบ๏ฃฌ
๏ฃท
๏ฃถ
๏ฃฌ u1 ๏ฃท
๏ฃฌ
๏ฃป๏ฃญ
x3
u3
Considering the cart mass and using Newtonโs Law we obtain
M xฬ = u โ bxฬ โ F sin ฯ
where F is the reaction force between the cart and the pendulum. Considering the pendulum we obtain
m
๏ฃท
๏ฃฌ
๏ฃท ๏ฃฌ
๏ฃท
k2 + k3 โk3 ๏ฃบ
๏ฃบ ๏ฃฌ x 2 ๏ฃท = ๏ฃฌ u2 ๏ฃท .
d2 (x + L sin ฯ)
= F sin ฯ
dt2
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
๏ฃธ
70
CHAPTER 2
Mathematical Models of Systems
m
d2 (L cos ฯ)
= F cos ฯ + mg
dt2
Eliminating the reaction force F yields the two equations
(m + M )xฬ + bxฬ + mLฯฬ cos ฯ โ mLฯฬ2 sin ฯ = u
mL2 ฯฬ + mgL sin ฯ + mLxฬ cos ฯ = 0
If we assume that the angle ฯ โ 0, then we have the linear model
(m + M )xฬ + bxฬ + mLฯฬ = u
mL2 ฯฬ + mgLฯ = โmLxฬ
The transfer function from the disturbance input to the output is
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
AP2.7
Y (s) =
1
Td (s) .
s + 40 + K
When Td (s) = 1, we obtain
y(t) = eโ(40+K)t .
Solving for t when y(t)
2.3
.
40 + K
When t = 0.05 and y(0.05) = 0.1, we find K = 6.05.
AP2.8
The closed-loop transfer function is
T (s) =
200K(0.25s + 1)
(0.25s + 1)(s + 1)(s + 8) + 200K
The final value due to a step input of R(s) = A/s is
v(t) โ A
200K
.
200K + 8
We need to select K so that v(t) โ 50. However, to keep the percent
overshoot to less than 10%, we need to limit the magnitude of K. Figure AP2.8a shows the percent overshoot as a function of K. Let K = 0.06
and select the magnitude of the input to be A = 83.3. The inverse Laplace
transform of the closed-loop response with R(s) = 83.3/s is
v(t) = 50 + 9.85eโ9.15t โ eโ1.93t (59.85 cos(2.24t) + 11.27 sin(2.24t))
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
71
Advanced Problems
The result is P.O. = 9.74% and the steady-state value of the output is
approximately 50 m/s, as shown in Figure AP2.8b.
25
15
10
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
Amplitude
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
Percent Overshoot (%)
20
5
0
0
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
K
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.1
Step Response
60
System: untitled1
Peak amplitude: 54.9
Overshoot (%): 9.74
At time (sec): 1.15
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
Time (sec)
FIGURE AP2.8
(a) Percent overshoot versus the gain K. (b) Step response.
AP2.9
The transfer function is
Vo (s)
Z2 (s)
=โ
,
Vi (s)
Z1 (s)
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
72
CHAPTER 2
Mathematical Models of Systems
where
Z1 (s) =
R1
R1 C 1 s + 1
and Z2 (s) =
R2 C 2 s + 1
.
C2 s
Then we can write
KI
Vo (s)
= Kp +
+ KD s
Vi (s)
s
where
R1 C 1
+1 ,
R2 C 2
KI = โ
1
,
R1 C 2
KD = โR2 C1 .
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
KP = โ
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
73
Design Problems
Design Problems
CDP2.1
The model of the traction drive, capstan roller, and linear slide follows
closely the armature-controlled dc motor model depicted in Figure 2.18
in Dorf and Bishop. The transfer function is
T (s) =
rKm
,
s [(Lm s + Rm )(JT s + bm ) + Kb Km ]
where
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
JT = Jm + r 2 (Ms + Mb ) .
Va(s)
–
1
JTs+bm
Km
Lms+Rm
1
s
q
r
X(s)
Kb
Back EMF
DP2.1
w
The closed-loop transfer function is
Y (s)
G1 (s)G2 (s)
=
.
R(s)
1 + G1 (s)H1 (s) โ G2 (s)H2 (s)
When G1 H1 = G2 H2 and G1 G2 = 1, then Y (s)/R(s) = 1. Therefore,
select
G1 (s) =
DP2.2
1
G2 (s)
and H1 (s) =
G2 (s)H2 (s)
= G22 (s)H2 (s) .
G1 (s)
At the lower node we have
1 1
v
+ + G + 2i2 โ 20 = 0 .
4 3
Also, we have v = 24 and i2 = Gv . So
1 1
v
+ + G + 2Gv โ 20 = 0
4 3
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
74
CHAPTER 2
Mathematical Models of Systems
and
G=
DP2.3
20 โ v
1
1
4 + 3
3v
=
1
S.
12
Taking the Laplace transform of
3 1
1
y(t) = eโt โ eโ2t โ + t
4
4 2
yields
Y (s) =
1
1
3
1
โ
โ
+ 2 .
s + 1 4(s + 2) 4s 2s
Similarly, taking the Laplace transform of the ramp input yields
1
.
s2
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
R(s) =
Therefore
G(s) =
DP2.4
Y (s)
1
=
.
R(s)
(s + 1)(s + 2)
For an ideal op-amp, at node a we have
vin โ va vo โ va
+
=0,
R1
R1
and at node b
vin โ vb
= C vฬb ,
R2
from it follows that
1
1
+ Cs Vb =
Vin .
R2
R2
Also, for an ideal op-amp, Vb โ Va = 0. Then solving for Vb in the above
equation and substituting the result into the node a equation for Va yields
1
+ Cs
Vo
2
1
= 1
โ R2
Vin
R2
2
R2 + Cs
”
#
or
Vo (s)
R2 Cs โ 1
=โ
.
Vin (s)
R2 Cs + 1
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
75
Design Problems
For vin (t) = At, we have Vin (s) = A/s2 , therefore
2
2
vo (t) = A eโฮฒt + t โ
ฮฒ
ฮฒ
where ฮฒ = 1/R2 C.
DP2.5
The equation of motion describing the motion of the inverted pendulum
(assuming small angles) is
ฯฬ +
g
ฯ=0.
L
Assuming a solution of the form ฯ = k cos ฯ, taking the appropriate
derivatives and substituting the result into the equation of motion yields
the relationship
g
.
L
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
ฯฬ =
r
If the period is T = 2 seconds, we compute ฯฬ = 2ฯ/T . Then solving for L
yields L = 0.99 meters when g = 9.81 m/s2 . So, to fit the pendulum into
the grandfather clock, the dimensions are generally about 1.5 meters or
more.
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
76
CHAPTER 2
Mathematical Models of Systems
Computer Problems
CP2.1
The m-file script is shown in Figure CP2.1.
pq =
1 10
p=[1 8 12]; q=[1 2];
% Part (a)
pq=conv(p,q)
% Part (b)
P=roots(p), Z=roots(q)
% Part (c)
value=polyval(p,-1)
28
24
P=
-6
-2
Z=
-2
value =
5
CP2.2
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
FIGURE CP2.1
Script for various polynomial evaluations.
The m-file script and step response is shown in Figure CP2.2.
numc = [1]; denc = [1 1]; sysc = tf(numc,denc)
numg = [1 2]; deng = [1 3]; sysg = tf(numg,deng)
% part (a)
sys_s = series(sysc,sysg);
sys_cl = feedback(sys_s,[1])
% part (b)
step(sys_cl); grid on
Transfer function:
s+2
————s^2 + 5 s + 5
Step Response
From: U(1)
0.4
0.35
0.3
To: Y(1)
Amplitude
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
Time (sec.)
FIGURE CP2.2
Step response.
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
77
Computer Problems
CP2.3
Given
yฬ + 6yฬ + 5y = u
with y(0) = yฬ = 0 and U (s) = 1/s, we obtain (via Laplace transform)
Y (s) =
1
s(s2 + 6s + 5)
=
1
.
s(s + 5)(s + 1)
Expanding in a partial fraction expansion yields
Y (s) =
1
1
1
โ
โ
.
5s 20(s + 5) 4(s + 1)
Taking the inverse Laplace transform we obtain the solution
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
y(t) = 0.2 + 0.05eโ5t โ 0.25eโt .
The m-file script and step response is shown in Figure CP2.3.
Step Response
0.2
0.18
0.16
0.14
n=[1]; d=[1 6 5]; sys = tf(n,d);
t=[0:0.1:5];
y = step(sys,t);
ya=0.2+0.05*exp(-5*t)-0.25*exp(-t);
plot(t,y,t,ya); grid;
title(‘Step Response’);
xlabel(‘Time (s)’);
ylabel(‘Amplitude’);
Amplitude
0.12
0.1
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
Time (s)
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
FIGURE CP2.3
Step response.
ยฉ 2017 Pearson Education, Inc., Hoboken, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently
exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
78
CHAPTER 2
CP2.4
Mathematical Models of Systems
The mass-spring-damper system is represented by
mxฬ + bxฬ + kx = f .
Taking the Laplace transform (with zero initial conditions) yields the
transfer function
X(s)/F (s) =
1/m
s2 + bs/m + k/m
.
The m-file script and step response is shown in Figure CP2.4.
T
a his
th nd To:wY(1)
o
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
m=10; k=1; b=0.5;
num=[1/m]; den=[1 b/m k/m];
sys = tf(num,den);
t=[0:0.1:150];
step(sys,t)
Step Response
From: U(1)
1.8
1.6
1.4
Amplitude
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0
50
100
150
Time (sec.)
FIGURE CP2.4
Step response.
CP2.5
The spacecraft simulations are shown in Figure CP2.5. We see that as J
is decreased, the time to settle down decreases. Also, the overhoot from
10o decreases as J decreases. Thus, the performance seems to get better
(in some sense) as J decreases.
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
79
Computer Problems
Nominal (solid); Off-nominal 80% (dashed); Off-nominal 50% (dotted)
18
16
Spacecraft attitude (deg)
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Time (sec)
Th
a is
th nd wo
or eir is p rk
w sa co ro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
%Part (a)
a=1; b=8; k=10.8e+08; J=10.8e+08;
num=k*[1 a];
den=J*[1 b 0 0]; sys=tf(num,den);
sys_cl=feedback(sys,[1]);
%
% Part (b) and (c)
t=[0:0.1:100];
%
% Nominal case
f=10*pi/180; sysf=sys_cl*f ;
y=step(sysf,t);
%
% Off-nominal case 80%
J=10.8e+08*0.8; den=J*[1 b 0 0];
sys=tf(num,den); sys_cl=feedback(sys,[1]);
sysf=sys_cl*f ;
y1=step(sysf,t);
%
% Off-nominal case 50%
J=10.8e+08*0.5; den=J*[1 b 0 0];
sys=tf(num,den); sys_cl=feedback(sys,[1]);
sysf=sys_cl*f ;
y2=step(sysf,t);
%
plot(t,y*180/pi,t,y1*180/pi,’–‘,t,y2*180/pi,’:’),grid
xlabel(‘Time (sec)’)
ylabel(‘Spacecraft attitude (deg)’)
title(‘Nominal (solid); Off-nominal 80% (dashed); Off-nominal 50% (dotted)’)
FIGURE CP2.5
Step responses for the nominal and off-nominal spacecraft parameters.
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
80
CHAPTER 2
CP2.6
Mathematical Models of Systems
The closed-loop transfer function is
T (s) =
4s6 + 8s5 + 4s4 + 56s3 + 112s2 + 56s
,
โ(s)
p=
7.0709
-7.0713
1.2051 + 2.0863i
1.2051 – 2.0863i
0.1219 + 1.8374i
0.1219 – 1.8374i
-2.3933
-2.3333
-0.4635 + 0.1997i
-0.4635 – 0.1997i
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
num1=[4]; den1=[1]; sys1 = tf(num1,den1);
num2=[1]; den2=[1 1]; sys2 = tf(num2,den2);
num3=[1 0]; den3=[1 0 2]; sys3 = tf(num3,den3);
num4=[1]; den4=[1 0 0]; sys4 = tf(num4,den4);
num5=[4 2]; den5=[1 2 1]; sys5 = tf(num5,den5);
num6=[50]; den6=[1]; sys6 = tf(num6,den6);
num7=[1 0 2]; den7=[1 0 0 14]; sys7 = tf(num7,den7);
sysa = feedback(sys4,sys6,+1);
sysb = series(sys2,sys3);
sysc = feedback(sysb,sys5);
sysd = series(sysc,sysa);
syse = feedback(sysd,sys7);
sys = series(sys1,syse)
poles
%
pzmap(sys)
%
p=pole(sys)
z=zero(sys)
z=
0
1.2051 + 2.0872i
1.2051 – 2.0872i
-2.4101
-1.0000 + 0.0000i
-1.0000 – 0.0000i
Polezero map
2.5
2
1.5
1
Imag Axis
0.5
0
-0.5
-1
-1.5
-2
-2.5
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
8
Real Axis
FIGURE CP2.6
Pole-zero map.
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
81
Computer Problems
where
โ(s) = s10 + 3s9 โ 45s8 โ 125s7 โ 200s6 โ 1177s5
โ 2344s4 โ 3485s3 โ 7668s2 โ 5598s โ 1400 .
CP2.7
The m-file script and plot of the pendulum angle is shown in Figure CP2.7.
With the initial conditions, the Laplace transform of the linear system is
ฮธ(s) =
ฮธ0 s
.
2
s + g/L
To use the step function with the m-file, we can multiply the transfer
function as follows:
s2
ฮธ0
,
2
s + g/L s
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
ฮธ(s) =
which is equivalent to the original transfer function except that we can
use the step function input with magnitude ฮธ0 . The nonlinear response
is shown as the solid line and the linear response is shown as the dashed
line. The difference between the two responses is not great since the initial
condition of ฮธ0 = 30โฆ is not that large.
30
L=0.5; m=1; g=9.8;
theta0=30;
% Linear simulation
sys=tf([1 0 0],[1 0 g/L]);
[y,t]=step(theta0*sys,[0:0.01:10]);
% Nonlinear simulation
[t,ynl]=ode45(@pend,t,[theta0*pi/180 0]);
plot(t,ynl(:,1)*180/pi,t,y,’–‘);
xlabel(‘Time (s)’)
ylabel(‘theta (deg)’)
20
ฮธ (deg)
10
0
-10
function [yd]=pend(t,y)
L=0.5; g=9.8;
yd(1)=y(2);
yd(2)=-(g/L)*sin(y(1));
yd=yd’;
-20
-30
0
2
4
6
8
10
Time (s)
FIGURE CP2.7
Plot of ฮธ versus xt when ฮธ0 = 30โฆ .
ยฉ 2017 Pearson Education, Inc., Hoboken, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently
exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
82
CHAPTER 2
The system step responses for z = 5, 10, and 15 are shown in Figure CP2.8.
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
CP2.8
Mathematical Models of Systems
FIGURE CP2.8
The system response.
CP2.9
(a,b) Computing the closed-loop transfer function yields
T (s) =
G(s)
s2 + 2s + 1
= 2
.
1 + G(s)H(s)
s + 4s + 3
The poles are s = โ3, โ1 and the zeros are s = โ1, โ1.
(c) Yes, there is one pole-zero cancellation. The transfer function (after
pole-zero cancellation) is
T (s) =
s+1
.
s+3
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exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
83
Computer Problems
Pole?Zero Map
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
Imaginary Axi s
0.2
0
?-0.2
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
?-0.4
?-0.6
?-0.8
?-1
?-3
?-2.5
?-2
?-1.5
?-1
?-0.5
0
Real Axi s
ng=[1 1]; dg=[1 2]; sysg = tf(ng,dg);
nh=[1]; dh=[1 1]; sysh = tf(nh,dh);
sys=feedback(sysg,sysh)
%
pzmap(sys)
%
pole(sys)
zero(sys)
poles
>>
Transfer function:
s^2 + 2 s + 1
————s^2 + 4 s + 3
p=
-3
-1
zeros
z=
-1
-1
FIGURE CP2.9
Pole-zero map.
CP2.10
Figure CP2.10 shows the steady-state response to a unit step input and a
unit step disturbance. We see that K = 1 leads to the same steady-state
response.
ยฉ 2017 Pearson Education, Inc., Hoboken, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently
exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
84
CHAPTER 2
Mathematical Models of Systems
0.35
0.3
0.25
Steadyโstate response
K=[0.1:0.1:10];
sysg=tf([1],[1 20 20]);
for i=1:length(K)
nc=K(i); dc=[1];sysc=tf(nc,dc);
syscl=feedback(sysc*sysg,1);
systd=feedback(sysg,sysc);
y1=step(syscl);
Tf1(i)=y1(end);
y2=step(systd);
Tf2(i)=y2(end);
end
plot(K,Tf1,K,Tf2,’–‘)
xlabel(‘K’)
ylabel(‘Steady-state response’)
Input Response Steady-State
0.2
0.15
0.1
Disturbance Response Steady-State
0.05
K=1
0
1
2
3
T
a his
th nd wo
o eir is rk
w r sa co pro is
ill le u vi pr
de o rse de ot
st f a s d s ec
ro n an o te
y y p d le d
th a a ly by
e rt ss fo U
in o e r
te f t ss th nite
gr hi in e
ity s w g us d S
of or stu e o tat
th k ( de f i es
e in nt ns co
w cl le tr p
or ud a uc y
r
k
an ing rnin tors igh
d on g. in t la
is
w
D
no the iss tea s
t p W em ch
er or in ing
m ld a
itt W tio
ed id n
.
e
W
eb
)
0
4
5
K
6
7
8
9
10
FIGURE CP2.10
Gain K versus steady-state value.
ยฉ 2017 Pearson Education, Inc., Hoboken, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently
exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

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