# Solution Manual For College Physics, 11th Edition

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Topic 2 38 Topic 2 Motion in One Dimension QUICK QUIZZES 2.1 (a) 200 yd (b) 0 (c) 0 2.2 (a) False. The car may be slowing down, so that the direction of its acceleration is opposite the direction of its velocity. (b) True. If the velocity is in the direction chosen as negative, a positive acceleration causes a decrease in speed. (c) True. For an accelerating particle to stop at all, the velocity and acceleration must have opposite signs, so that the speed is decreasing. If this is the case, the particle will eventually come to rest. If the acceleration remains constant, however, the particle must begin to move again, opposite to the direction of its original velocity. If the particle comes to rest and then stays at rest, the acceleration has become zero at the moment the motion stops. This is the case for a braking carโthe acceleration is negative and goes to zero as the car comes to rest. ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 2.3 39 The velocity-vs-time graph (a) has a constant slope, indicating a constant acceleration, which is represented by the acceleration-vs.-time graph (e). Graph (b) represents an object whose speed always increases, and does so at an ever-increasing rate. Thus, the acceleration must be increasing, and the acceleration-vs-time graph that best indicates this behaviour is (d). Graph (c) depicts an object which first has a velocity that increases at a constant rate, which means that the objectโs acceleration is constant. The motion then changes to one at constant speed, indicating that the acceleration of the object becomes zero. Thus, the best match to this situation is graph (f). 2.4 Choice (b). According to graph b, there are some instants in time when the object is simultaneously at two different x-coordinates. This is physically impossible. 2.5 (a) The blue graph of Figure 2.14b best shows the puckโs position as a function of time. As seen in Figure 2.14a, the distance the puck has traveled grows at an increasing rate for approximately three time intervals, grows at a steady rate for about four time intervals, and then grows at a diminishing rate for the last two intervals. (b) The red graph of Figure 2.14c best illustrates the speed (distance ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 40 traveled per time interval) of the puck as a function of time. It shows the puck gaining speed for approximately three time intervals, moving at constant speed for about four time intervals, then slowing to rest during the last two intervals. (c) The green graph of Figure 2.14d best shows the puckโs acceleration as a function of time. The puck gains velocity (positive acceleration) for approximately three time intervals, moves at constant velocity (zero acceleration) for about four time intervals, and then loses velocity (negative acceleration) for roughly the last two time intervals. 2.6 Choice (e). The acceleration of the ball remains constant while it is in the air. The magnitude of its acceleration is the free-fall acceleration, g = 9.80 m/s2. 2.7 Choice (c). As it travels upward, its speed decreases by 9.80 m/s during each second of its motion. When it reaches the peak of its motion, its speed becomes zero. As the ball moves downward, its speed increases by 9.80 m/s each second. 2.8 Choices (a) and (f). The first jumper will always be moving with a higher velocity than the second. Thus, in a given time interval, the first jumper covers more distance than the second, and the separation distance ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 41 between them increases. At any given instant of time, the velocities of the jumpers are definitely different, because one had a head start. In a time interval after this instant, however, each jumper increases his or her velocity by the same amount, because they have the same acceleration. Thus, the difference in velocities stays the same. ANSWERS TO EVEN NUMBERED CONCEPTUAL QUESTIONS 2.2 Yes. The particle may stop at some instant, but still have an acceleration, as when a ball thrown straight up reaches its maximum height. 2.4 (a) No. They can be used only when the acceleration is constant. (b) Yes. Zero is a constant. 2.6 (a) In Figure (c), the images are farther apart for each successive time interval. The object is moving toward the right and speeding up. This means that the acceleration is positive in Figure (c). (b) In Figure (a), the first four images show an increasing distance traveled each time interval and therefore a positive acceleration. However, after the fourth image, the spacing is decreasing, showing that the object is now slowing down (or has negative acceleration). ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 42 (c) In Figure (b), the images are equally spaced, showing that the object moved the same distance in each time interval. Hence, the velocity is constant in Figure (b). 2.8 (a) At the maximum height, the ball is momentarily at rest (i.e., has zero velocity). The acceleration remains constant, with magnitude equal to the free-fall acceleration g and directed downward. Thus, even though the velocity is momentarily zero, it continues to change, and the ball will begin to gain speed in the downward direction. (b) The acceleration of the ball remains constant in magnitude and direction throughout the ballโs free flight, from the instant it leaves the hand until the instant just before it strikes the ground. The acceleration is directed downward and has a magnitude equal to the freefall acceleration g. 2.10 Once the ball has left the thrower’s hand, it is a freely falling body with a constant, nonzero, acceleration of a = โg. Since the acceleration of the ball is not zero at any point on its trajectory, choices (a) through (d) are all false and the correct response is (e). 2.12 The initial velocity of the car is v0 = 0 and the velocity at the time t is v. The constant acceleration is therefore given by ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 43 a= ฮv v โ v0 v โ 0 v = = = ฮt t t t and the average velocity of the car is v= ( v + v0 ) = ( v + 0 ) = v 2 2 2 The distance traveled in time t is ฮx = vt = vt/2. In the special case where a = 0 (and hence v = v0 = 0), we see that statements (a), (b), (c), and (d) are all correct. However, in the general case (a โ  0, and hence v โ  0) only statements (b) and (c) are true. Statement (e) is not true in either case. ANSWERS TO EVEN NUMBERED PROBLEMS 2.2 (a) 2 ร 104 mi (b) ฮx/2RE = 2.4 2.4 (a) 8.33 yards/s (b) 2.78 yards/s 2.6 (a) 5.00 m/s (b) 1.25 m/s (d) โ3.33 m/s (e) 0 (a) +4.0 m/s (b) โ0.50 m/s (d) 0 (a) 2.3 min (b) 64 mi 2.8 2.10 (c) โ2.50 m/s (c) โ1.0 m/s ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 2.12 44 (a) L/t1 (b) โL/t2 (d) 2L/(t1 + t2) 2.14 (a) 2.16 2.18 (c) 0 1.3 ร 102 s (b) 13 m (a) 37.1 m/s (b) 1.30 ร 10โ5 m (a) Some data points that can be used to plot the graph are as given below: x (m) 5.75 16.0 35.3 68.0 119 192 t (s) 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 (b) 41.0 m/s, 41.0 m/s, 41.0 m/s (c) 17.0 m/s, much smaller than the instantaneous velocity at t = 4.00 s 2.20 (a) 2.00 m/s, 5.0 m/s (b) 2.22 0.391 s 2.24 (i) (a) 0 (b) 1.6 m/s2 (c) 0.80 m/s2 (ii) (a) 0 (b) 1.6 m/s2 (c) 0 2.26 263 m The curves intersect at t = 16.9 s. ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 45 2.28 a = 2.74 ร 105 m/s2 = (2.79 ร 104)g 2.30 (a) (c) a = (v 2f โ vi2 )/ ( 2 ฮx) (b) 13.5 m (c) (b) v 2f = vi2 + 2a(ฮx) (e) 8.00 s (a) 13.5 m (d) 22.5 m (a) 20.0 s (b) No, it cannot land safely on the 0.800 km runway. 2.36 (a) 5.51 km (b) 20.8 m/s, 41.5 m/s, 20.8 m/s, 38.7 m/s 2.38 (a) 107 m (b) 1.49 m/s2 2.40 (a) v = a1t1 (b) ฮx = (c) ฮxtotal = 1 2 1 a1t1 + a1t1t 2 + a2t 22 2 2 2.32 2.34 (d) 1.25 m/s2 13.5 m 1 2 a1t1 2 ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 46 2.42 8.9 months 2.44 29.1 s 2.46 1.79 s 2.48 (a) Yes. (c) ๏ฒ ฮv downward = 2.39 m/s (d) ! No, ฮv upward = 3.71 m/s. The two rocks have the same acceleration, (b) vtop = 3.69 m/s but the rock thrown downward has a higher average speed between the two levels, and is accelerated over a smaller time interval. 2.50 (a) 21.1 m/s (b) 19.6 m 2.52 (a) v = | โv0 โ gt| = |v0 + gt| (c) v = v0 โ gt , d = 2.54 (a) 29.4 m/s (b) 44.1 m 2.56 (a) โ202 m/s2 (b) 198 m 2.58 (a) 4.53 s (b) 14.1 m/s 2.60 8.4 m/s 2.62 See Solutions Section for Motion Diagrams. (c) 1.81 m/s, 19.6 m (b) d= 1 2 gt 2 1 2 gt 2 ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 47 2.64 (a) v = v02 + 2gh (b) ฮt = 2v0/g 2.66 (a) 2.45 ร 10โ2 m (b) 4.67 ร 10โ2 s 2.68 (a) 3.00 s (b) v0,2 = โ15.2 m/s (c) v1 = โ31.4 m/s, v2 = โ34.8 m/s (a) 2.2 s 2.70 (b) โ21 m/s (c) 2.3 s PROBLEM SOLUTIONS 2.1 We assume that you are approximately 2 m tall and that the nerve impulse travels at uniform speed. The elapsed time is then ฮt = 2.2 ฮx 2m = = 2 ร 10 โ2 s = 0.02 s v 100 m/s (a) At constant speed, c = 3 ร 108 m/s, the distance light travels in 0.1 s is ฮx = c(ฮt) = (3 ร 10 8 m/s)(0.1 s) โ 1 mi โ โ 1 km โ = (3 ร 10 7 m ) โ = 2 ร 10 4 mi โ 1.609 km โโ  โโ 10 3 m โโ  (b) Comparing the result of part (a) to the diameter of the Earth, DE, we find ฮx ฮx 3.0 ร 10 7 m = = โ 2.4 DE 2RE 2(6.38 ร 10 6 m ) (with RE = Earth’s radius) ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 2.3 48 Distances traveled between pairs of cities are ฮx1 = v1(ฮt1) = (80.0 km/h)(0.500 h) = 40.0 km ฮx2 = v2(ฮt2) = (100.0 km/h)(0.200 h) = 20.0 km ฮx3 = v3(ฮt3) = (40.0 km/h)(0.750 h) = 30.0 km Thus, the total distance traveled is ฮx = (40.0 + 20.0 + 30.0) km = 90.0 km, and the elapsed time is ฮt = 0.500 h + 0.200 h + 0.750 h + 0.250 h = 1.70 h. (a) v= ฮx 90.0 km = = 52.9 km/h ฮt 1.70 h (b) ฮx = 90.0 km (see above) 2.4 (a) The player runs 100 yards from his own goal line to the opposing teamโs goal line. Then he runs an additional 50 yards back to the fiftyyard line, all in 18.0 s. Substitute values into the definition of average speed to find Average speed = path length 100 yards + 50 yards = elapsed time 18.0 s = 8.33 yards/s (b) After returning to the fifty-yard line, the playerโs displacement is ฮx = xf โ xi = 50.0 yards โ 0 yards = 50.0 yards. Substitute values into the definition of average velocity to find ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 49 v= ฮx 50.0 yards = ฮt 18.0 s = 2.78 yards/s 2.5 (a) Boat A requires 1.0 h to cross the lake and 1.0 h to return, total time 2.0 h. Boat B requires 2.0 h to cross the lake at which time the race is over. Boat A wins, being 60 km ahead of B when the race ends. (b) Average velocity is the net displacement of the boat divided by the total elapsed time. The winning boat is back where it started, its displacement thus being zero, yielding an average velocity of zero. 2.6 The average velocity over any time interval is v= ฮx x f โ xi = ฮt t f โ ti v= ฮx 10.0 m โ 0 = = 5.00 m/s ฮt 2.00 s โ 0 (b) v = ฮx 5.00 m โ 0 = = 1.25 m/s ฮt 4.00 s โ 0 (a) v= ฮx 5.00 m โ 10.0 m = = โ2.50 m/s ฮt 4.00 s โ 2.00 s (d) v = ฮx โ5.00 m โ 5.00 m = = โ3.33 m/s ฮt 7.00 s โ 4.00 s (c) ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 50 (e) 2.7 v= ฮx x2 โ x1 0โ0 = = = 0 ฮt t 2 โ t1 8.00s โ 0 (a) โ 1h โ Displacement = ฮx = (8.50 km/h)(35.0 min) โ + 130 km = 180 km โ 60.0 min โโ  (b) The total elapsed time is โ 1h โ ฮt = (35.0 min + 15.0 min) โ + 2.00 h = 2.83 h โ 60.0 min โโ  so, 2.8 v= ฮx 180 km = = 63.6 km ฮt 2.84 h The average velocity over any time interval is (a) v= ฮx x f โ xi = ฮt t f โ ti v= ฮx 4.0 m โ 0 = = +4.0 m / s ฮt 1.0 s โ 0 ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 51 (b) v = ฮx โ2.0 m โ 0 = = โ0.50 m / s ฮt 4.0 s โ 0 v= ฮx 0 โ 4.0 m = = โ1.0 m / s ฮt 5.0 s โ 1.0 s (c) (d) v = 2.9 ฮx 0โ0 = = 0 ฮt 5.0 s โ 0 The plane starts from rest (v0 = 0) and maintains a constant acceleration of a = +1.3 m/s2. Thus, we find the distance it will travel before reaching the required takeoff speed (v = 75 m/s), from v 2 = v02 + 2a(ฮx) , as ฮx = v 2 โ v02 (75 m/s)2 = = 2.2 ร 10 3 m = 2.2 km 2 2a 2(1.3 m/s ) Since this distance is less than the length of the runway, the plane takes off safely. 2.10 (a) The time for a car to make the trip is t = ฮx . Thus, the difference in v the times for the two cars to complete the same 10 mile trip is ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 52 ฮt = t1 โ t 2 = ฮx ฮx โ 10 mi 10 mi โ โ 60 min โ โ =โ โ = 2.3 min v1 v2 โ 55 mi/h 70 mi/h โโ  โโ 1 h โโ  (b) When the faster car has a 15.0 min lead, it is ahead by a distance equal to that traveled by the slower car in a time of 15.0 min. This distance is given by ฮx1 = v1(ฮt) = (55 mi/h)(15 min). The faster car pulls ahead of the slower car at a rate of vrelative = 70 mi/h โ 55 mi/h = 15 mi/h Thus, the time required for it to get distance ฮx1 ahead is ฮt = ฮx1 (55 mi/h)(15 min) = = 15 min vrelative 15.0 mi/h Finally, the distance the faster car has traveled during this time is โ 1h โ ฮx2 = v2 (ฮt) = (70 mi/h)(55 min) โ = 64 mi โ 60 min โโ  2.11 (a) From v f + vi + 2a(ฮx) , with vi = 0, vf = 72 km/h, and ฮx = 45 m, the 2 2 acceleration of the cheetah is found to be โกโ km โ โ 10 3 m โ โ 1 h โ โค 72 โข โฅโ0 h โโ  โโ 1 km โโ  โโ 3600 s โโ  โฆ v 2f โ vi2 โฃโโ a= = = 4.4 m/s 2 2(ฮx) 2(45 m) (b) The cheetahโs displacement 3.5 s after starting from rest is ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 53 1 1 ฮx = vi t + at 2 = 0 + (4.4 m/s 2 )(3.5 s) = 27 m 2 2 2.12 v1 = (ฮx)1 +L = = +L /t1 (ฮt)1 t1 (b) v2 = (ฮx)2 โL = = โL /t 2 (ฮt)2 t2 (a) (c) vtotal = (ฮx)total (ฮx)1 + (ฮx)2 +L โ L 0 = = = = 0 (ฮt)total t1 + t 2 t1 + t 2 t1 + t 2 (d) (ave speed)trip = 2.13 +L + โL totaldistance traveled (ฮx)1 + (ฮx)2 2L = = = (ฮt)total t1 + t 2 t1 + t 2 t1 + t 2 (a) The total time for the trip is ttotal = t1 + 22.0 min = t1 + 0.367 h, where t1 is the time spent traveling at v1 = 89.5 km/h. Thus, the distance traveled is ฮx = v1t1 = vt total , which gives (89.5 km/h)t1 = (77.8 km/h)(t1 + 0.367 h) = (77.8 km/h)t1 + 28.5 km or, (89.5 km/h โ 77.8 km/h)t1 = 28.5 km From which, t1 = 2.44 h for a total time of ttotal = t1 + 0.367 h = 2.81 h (b) The distance traveled during the trip is ฮx = v1t1 = vt total , giving ฮx = vt total = (77.8 km/h)(2.81 h) = 219 km ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 2.14 54 (a) At the end of the race, the tortoise has been moving for time t and the hare for a time t โ 2.0 min = t โ 120 s. The speed of the tortoise is vi = 0.100 m/s, and the speed of the hare is vh = 20 vt = 2.0 m/s. The tortoise travels distance xt, which is 0.20 m larger than the distance xh traveled by the hare. Hence, xt = xh + 0.20 m which becomes or vtt = vh(t โ 120 s) + 0.20 m (0.100 m/s)t = (2.0 m/s)(t โ 120 s) + 0.20 m This gives the time of the race as t = 1.30 ร 102 s (b) xt = vtt = (0.100 m/s)(1.3 ร 102 s) = 13 m 2.15 The maximum allowed time to complete the trip is t total = total distance 1600 m โ 1 km/h โ = = 23.0 s required averagespeed 250 km/h โโ 0.278 m/s โโ  The time spent in the first half of the trip is t1 = half distance 800 m โ 1 km/h โ = = 12.5 s v1 230 km/h โโ 0.278 m/s โโ  Thus, the maximum time that can be spent on the second half of the trip is ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 55 t2 = ttotal โ t1 = 23.0 s โ 12.5 s = 10.5 s and the required average speed on the second half is v2 = 2.16 โ 1 km/h โ half distance 800 m = = 76.2 m/s โ = 274 km/h t2 10.5 s โ 0.278 m/s โโ  (a) From the first kinematic equation with v0 = 0, t = 7.00 ร 10-7 s, and a = 5.30 ร 107 m/s2, the maximum speed is v = v0 + at = (5.30 ร 107 m/s2 )(7.00 ร 10โ7 s) v = 37.1 m/s (b) Use ฮx = v0t + 12 at with v0 = 0 to find the distance travelled during 2 the acceleration: ( )( ฮx = 12 at 2 = 12 5.30 ร 107 m/s2 7.00 ร 10โ7 s ) 2 ฮx = 1.30 ร 10โ5 m 2.17 The instantaneous velocity at any time is the slope of the x vs. t graph at that time. We compute this slope by using two points on a straight segment of the curve, one point on each side of the point of interest. (a) vt=1.00 s = 10.0 m โ 0 = 5.00 m/s 2.00 s โ 0 ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 56 (b) vt=3.00 s = (c) vt=4.50 s = (d) vt=7.50 s = 2.18 (5.00 โ 10.0) m = โ2.50 m/s (4.00 โ 2.00) s (5.00 โ 5.00) m = 0 (5.00 โ 4.00) s 0 โ (โ5.00) m = 5.00 m/s (8.00 โ 7.00) s (a) A few typical values are t (s) x (m) 1.00 5.75 2.00 16.0 3.00 35.3 4.00 68.0 5.00 119 6.00 192 ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 57 (b) We will use a 0.400 s interval centered at t = 400 s. We find at t = 3.80 s, x = 60.2 m and at t = 4.20 s, x = 76.6 m. Therefore, v= ฮx 16.4 m = = 41.0 m/s ฮt 0.400 s Using a time interval of 0.200 s, we find the corresponding values to be: at t = 3.90 s, x = 64.0 m and at t = 4.10 s, x = 72.2 m. Thus, v= ฮx 8.20 m = = 41.0 m/s ฮt 0.200 s For a time interval of 0.100 s, the values are: at t = 3.95 s, x = 66.0 m, and at t = 4.05 s, x = 70.1 m. Therefore, v= ฮx 4.10 m = = 41.0 m/s ฮt 0.100 s (c) At t = 4.00 s, x = 68.0 m. Thus, for the first 4.00 s, v= ฮx 68.0 m โ 0 = = 17.0 m/s ฮt 4.00 s โ 0 ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 58 This value is much less than the instantaneous velocity at t = 4.00 s. 2.19 Choose a coordinate axis with the origin at the flagpole and east as the 1 2 positive direction. Then, using x = x0 + v0t at with a = 0 for each runner, 2 the x-coordinate of each runner at time t is xA = โ4.0 mi + (6.0 mi/h)t and xB = 3.0 mi + (โ5.0 mi/h)t When the runners meet, xA = xB giving โ4.0 mi + (60 mi/h)t = 3.0 mi + (โ5.0 mi/h)t or (6.0 mi/h + 5.0 mi/h)t = 3.0 mi + 4.0 mi. This gives the elapsed time when they meet as t = (7.0 mi)/(11.0 mi/h) = 0.64 h. At this time, xA = xB = โ0.18 mi. Thus, they meet 0.18 mi west of the flagpole. 2.20 From the figure below, observe that the motion of this particle can be broken into three distinct time intervals, during each of which the particle has a constant acceleration. These intervals and the associated accelerations are 0 โค t โค 10.0 s, a = a1 = +2.00 m/s2 10 โค t โค 15.0 s, a = a2 = 0 ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 59 and 15.0 โค t โค 20.0 s, a = a3 = โ3.00 m/s2 (a) Applying vf = vi + a(ฮt) to each of the three time intervals gives for 0 โค t โค 10.0 s, v10 + v0 + a1(ฮt1) = 0 + (2.00 m/s2)(10.0 s) = 20.0 m/s for 10.0 s โค t โค 15.0 s, v15 + v10 + a2(ฮt2) = 20.0 m/s + 0 = 20.0 m/s for 15.0 s โค t โค 20.0 s, v20 + v15 + a3(ฮt3) = 20.0 m/s + (โ3.00 m/s2)(5.00 s) = 5.00 m/s 1 2 (b) Applying ฮx = vi (ฮt) + a(ฮt) to each of the time intervals gives 2 for 0 โค t โค 10.0 s, 1 1 ฮx1 = v0 ฮt1 + a1 (ฮt1 )2 = 0 + (2.00 m/s 2 )(10.0 s)2 = 1.00 ร 10 2 m 2 2 for 10.0 s โค t โค 15.0 s, ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 60 1 ฮx2 = v10 ฮt 2 + a2 (ฮt 2 )2 = (20.0 m/s)(5.00 s) + 0 = 1.00 ร 10 2 m 2 for 15.0 s โค t โค 20.0 s, 1 ฮx = v15 ฮt 3 + a3 (ฮt 3 )2 2 1 = (20.0 m/s)(5.00 s) + (โ3.00 m/s 2 )(5.00 s)2 = 62.5 m 2 Thus, the total distance traveled in the first 20.0 s is ฮxtotal = ฮx1 + ฮx2 + ฮx3 = 100 m + 100 m + 62.5 m = 263 m 2.21 We choose the positive direction to point away from the wall. Then, the initial velocity of the ball is vi = โ25.0 m/s and the final velocity is vf = +22.0 m/s. If this change in velocity occurs over a time interval of ฮt = 3.50 ms (i.e., the interval during which the ball is in contact with the wall), the average acceleration is a= 2.22 ฮv v f โ vi +22.0 m/s โ (โ25.0 m/s) = = = 1.34 ร 10 4 m/s 2 โ3 ฮt ฮt 3.50 ร 10 s From a = ฮv/ฮt, the required time is ฮt = 2.23 From a = โ โ 0.447 m/s โ ฮv โ 60.0 mi/h โ 0 โ โ 1g =โ = = 0.391 s 2โ โ โ โ  โ 9.80 m/s โ  โโ 1 mi/h โโ  a โ 7g ฮv ฮv (60 โ 55) mi/h โ 0.447 m/s โ = = 3.7 s , we have ฮt = a 0.60 m/s 2 โโ 1 mi/h โโ  ฮt ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 2.24 61 (i) (a) From t = 0 to t = 5.0 s, a= v f โ vi โ8.0 m/s โ (โ8.0 m/s) = = 0 t f โ ti 5.0 s โ 0 (b) From t = 5.0 s to t = 15 s, a= 8.0 m/s โ (โ8.0 m/s) = 1.6 m/s 2 15 s โ 5.0 s (c) From t = 0 to t = 20 s, a= 8.0 m/s โ (โ8.0 m/s) = 0.80 m/s 2 20 s โ 0 (ii) At any instant, the instantaneous acceleration equals the slope of the line tangent to the v vs. t graph at that point in time. (a) At t = 2.0 s, the slope of the tangent line to the curve is 0. (b) At t = 10 s, the slope of the tangent line is 1.6 m/s2 . (c) At t = 18 s, the slope of the tangent line is 0. 2.25 (a) a = ฮv 175 mi/h โ 0 = = 70.0 mi/h โs ฮt 2.5 s ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 62 โ mi โ โ 1609 m โ โ 1 h โ a = โ 70.0 = = 31.3 m/s 2 h โs โโ  โโ 1 mi โโ  โโ 3600 s โโ  โ or Alternatively, mโ 1g โ a = โ 31.3 2 โ = = 3.19g โ s โ  9.80 m/s 2 1 2 (b) If the acceleration is constant, ฮx = v0t + at 2 1โ mโ ฮx = 0 + โ 3.13 2 โ (2.50 s)2 = 97.8 m 2โ s โ  or 2.26 โ 3.281 ft โ ฮx = (97.8 m) โ = 321 ft โ 1 m โโ  As in the algebraic solution to Example 2.5, we let t represent the time the trooper has been moving. We graph xcar = 24.0 m + (24.0 m/s)t and xtrooper = (1.50 m/s2)t2 ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 63 The curves intersect at t = 16.9 s 2.27 1 2 Apply ฮx = v0 + at to the 2.00-second time interval during which the 2 object moves from xi = 3.00 cm to xf = โ5.00 cm. With v0 = 12.0 cm/s, this yields an acceleration of 2 โก(x f โ xi ) โ v0t โคโฆ 2[(โ5.00 โ 3.00) cm โ (12.0 cm/s)(2.00 s)] a= โฃ = t2 (2.00 s)2 or 2.28 a = โ16.0 cm/s2 From v 2 = v02 + 2a(ฮx) , we have (10.97 ร 103 m/s)2 = 0 + 2a(220 m) so that a= v 2 โ v02 (10.97 ร 10 3 m/s)2 โ 0 = = 2.74 ร 10 5 m/s 2 2(ฮx) 2(220 m) โ โ 1g = (2.74 ร 10 5 m/s 2 ) โ = 2.79 ร 10 4 times g! 2โ โ 9.80 m/s โ  2.29 (a) ฮx = v(ฮt) = [(v + v0 ) / 2]ฮt becomes โ 2.80 m/s + v0 โ 40.0 m= โ โโ  (8.50 s) โ 2 which yields (b) a = v0 = 2 (40.0 m) โ 2.80 m/s = 6.61 m/s 8.50 s v โ v0 2.80 m/s โ 6.61 m/s = = โ0.448 m/s 2 ฮt 8.50 s ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 2.30 64 (a) (b) The known quantities are initial velocity, final velocity, and displacement. The kinematics equation that relates these quantities to acceleration is v f = vi + 2a(ฮx) 2 (c) 2 v 2f โ vi2 a= 2(ฮx) (d) a = v 2f โ vi2 (30.0 m/s)2 โ (20.0 m/s)2 = = 1.25 m/s 2 2(ฮx) 2(2.00 ร 10 2 m) (e) Using a = ฮv/ฮt, we find that ฮt = 2.31 ฮv v f โ vi 30.0 m/s โ 20.0 m/s = = = 8.00 s a a 1.25 m/s 2 (a) With v = 120 km/h, v 2 = v02 + 2a(ฮx) yields v 2 โ v02 โกโฃ(120 km/h) โ 0 โคโฆ โ 0.278 m/s โ a= = = 2.32 m/s 2 โ โ 2(ฮx) 2(240 m) โ 1 km/h โ  2 2 (b) The required time is ฮt = 2.32 v โ v0 (120 km/h โ 0) โ 0.278 m/s โ = = 14.4 s a 2.32 m/s 2 โโ 1 km/h โโ  (a) From v f = vi + 2a(ฮx) , with vi = 6.00 m/s and vf = 12.0 m/s, we find 2 2 ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 65 ฮx = v 2f โ vi2 (120 m/s)2 โ (6.00 m/s)2 = = 13.5 m 2a 2(4.00 m/s 2 ) (b) In this case, the object moves in the same direction for the entire time interval and the total distance traveled is simply the magnitude or absolute value of the displacement. That is, d = |ฮx| = 13.5 m (c) Here, vi = โ6.00 m/s and vf = 12.0 m/s, and we find v 2f โ vi2 ฮx = = 13.5m 2a [the same as in part (a)] (d) In this case, the object initially slows down as it travels in the negative x-direction, stops momentarily, and then gains speed as it begins traveling in the positive x-direction. We find the total distance traveled by first finding the displacement during each phase of this motion. While coming to rest (vi = โ6.00 m/s, vf = 0), v 2f โ vi2 (0)2 โ (โ6.00 m/s)2 ฮx1 = = = โ4.50 m 2a 2(4.00 m/s2 ) After reversing direction (vi = 0 m/s, vf = 12.0 m/s), v 2f โ vi2 (12.0 m/s)2 โ (0)2 ฮx2 = = = 18.0 m 2a 2(4.00 m/s 2 ) ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 66 Note that the net displacement is ฮx = ฮx1 + ฮx2 = โ4.50 m + 18.0 m = 13.5 m, as found in part (c) above. However, the total distance traveled in this case is d = |ฮx1| + |ฮx2| = |โ4.50 m| + |18.0 m| = 22.5 m 2.33 v โ v0 24.0 m/s 2 โ 0 = = 8.14 m / s 2 (a) a = ฮt 2.95 s (b) From a = ฮv/ฮt, the required time is ฮt = v f โ vi 20.0 m/s โ 10.0 m/s = = 1.23 s a 8.15 m/s 2 (c) Yes. For uniform acceleration, the change in velocity ฮv generated in time ฮt is given by ฮv = a(ฮt). From this, it is seen that doubling the length of the time interval ฮt will always double the change in velocity ฮv. A more precise way of stating this is: โWhen acceleration is constant, velocity is a linear function of time.โ 2.34 (a) The time required to stop the plane is t= v โ v0 0 โ 100 m/s = = 20.0 s a โ5.00 m/s 2 (b) The minimum distance needed to stop is โ v + v0 โ โ 0 + 100 m/s โ ฮx = v = โ t=โ โ โโ  (20.0 s) = 1 000 m = 1.00 km โ 2 โ  โ 2 ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 67 Thus, the plane requires a minimum runway length of 1.00 km. It cannot land safely on a 0.800 km runway. 2.35 We choose x = 0 and t = 0 at the location of Sueโs car when she first spots the van and applies the brakes. Then, the initial conditions for Sueโs car are x0S = 0 and v0S = 30.0 m/s. Her constant acceleration for aS = โ2.00 m/s2. The initial conditions for the van are x0V = 155 m, v0V = 5.00 m/s, and its 1 2 constant acceleration is aV = 0. We then use ฮx = x โ x0 = v0t + at to write 2 an equation for the x-coordinate of each vehicle for t โฅ 0. This gives Sueโs Car: 1 xS โ 0 = (30.0 m/s)t + (โ2.00 m/s 2 )t 2 or xS = (30.0 m/s)t โ (โ1.00 m/s 2 )t 2 2 xV โ 155 m = (5.00 m/s)t + Van: 1 (0)t 2 or xV = 155 m + (5.00 m/s)t 2 In order for a collision to occur, the two vehicles must be at the same location (i.e., xS = xV). Thus, we test for a collision by equating the two equations for the x-coordinates and see if the resulting equation has any real solutions. xS = xV โ (30.0 m/s)t โ (1.00 m/s2)t2 = 155 m + (5.00 m/s)t or (1.00 m/s2)t2 โ (25.00 m/s) + 155 m = 0 ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 68 Using the quadratic formula yields โ(โ25.00 m/s) ยฑ (โ25.00 m/s 2 ) โ 4(1.00 m/s 2 )(155 m) t= = 13.6s or 11.4 s 2(1.00 m/s 2 ) The solutions are real, not imaginary, so a collision will occur. The smaller of the two solutions is the collision time. (The larger solution tells when the van would pull ahead of the car again if the vehicles could pass harmlessly through each other.) The x-coordinate where the collision occurs is given by xcollision = xS|t= 11.4 s = xV|t= 11.4 s = 155 m + (5.00 m/s)(11.4 s) = 212 m 2.36 The velocity at the end of the first interval is v = v0 + at = 0 + (2.77 m/s2)(15.0 s) = 41.6 m/s This is also the constant velocity during the second interval and the initial velocity for the third interval. Also, note that the duration of the second interval is t2 = (2.05 min)(60.0 s/1 min) = 123 s. 1 2 (a) From ฮx = v0t + at , the total displacement is 2 (ฮx)total = (ฮx)1 + (ฮx)2 + (ฮx)3 1 โก โค โ โข 0 + (2.77 m/s 2 )(15.0 s)2 โฅ + [(2.77 m/s 2 )(15.0 s)(123 s) + 0] 2 โฃ โฆ 1 โก โค + โข(2.77 m/s 2 )(15.0 s)(4.39 s) + (โ9.47 m/s 2 )(4.39 s)2 โฅ 2 โฃ โฆ ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 69 (ฮx)total = 312 m + 5.11 ร 103 m + 91.2 m = 5.51 ร 103 m = 5.51 km or (b) v1 = (ฮx)1 312 m = = 20.8 m/s t1 15.0 s v2 = (ฮx)2 5.11ร 10 3 m = = 41.5 m/s t2 123 s v3 = (ฮx)3 91.2 m = = 20.8 m/s , and the average velocity for the t3 4.39 s (ฮx)total 5.51ร 10 3 m = = 38.7 m/s total trip is vtotal = t total (15.0 + 123 + 4.39) s 2.37 1 2 Using the uniformly accelerated motion equation ฮx + v0t + at for the 2 1 2 2 full 40 s interval yields ฮx = (20 m/s)(40 s) + (โ1.0 m/s )(40 s) = 0 , which 2 is obviously wrong. The source of the error is found by computing the time required for the train to come to rest. This time is t= v โ v0 0 โ 20 m/s = = 20 s. a โ1.0 m/s 2 Thus, the train is slowing down for the first 20 s and is at rest for the last 20 s of the 40 s interval. The acceleration is not constant during the full 40 s. It is, however, constant during the first 20 s as the train slows to rest. Application of ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 70 1 ฮx = v0t + at 2 to this interval gives the stopping distance as 2 1 ฮx = (20 m/s)(20 s) + (โ1.0 m/s 2 )(20 s)2 = 200 m 2 2.38 mi โ โ 0.447 m/s โ โ v0 = 0 and v f = โ 400 โ โ = 17.9 m/s โ h โ  โ 1 mi/h โโ  (a) To find the distance traveled, we use โ v + v0 โ โ 17.9 m/s + 0 โ ฮx = vt = โ f t=โ โโ  (12.0 s) = 107 m โ 2 โโ  โ 2 (b) The constant acceleration is 2.39 a= v f โ v0 17.9 m/s โ 0 = = 1.49 m/s 2 t 12.0 s At the end of the acceleration period, the velocity is v = v0 + ataccel = 0 + (1.5 m/s2)(5.0 s) = 7.5 m/s This is also the initial velocity for the braking period. (a) After braking, vf = v + atbrake = 7.5 m/s + (โ2.0 m/s2)(3.0 s) = 1.5 m/s (b) The total distance traveled is โ v + vโ โ v + v0 โ ฮxtotal = (ฮx)accel + (ฮx)brake = (vt)accel + (vt)brake = โ t accel + โ f t โ โ 2 โ  โ 2 โโ  brake โ 7.5 m/s +0 โ โ 1.5 m/s +7.5 m/s โ ฮx total = โ (5.0 s) + โ โ โโ  (3.0 s) = 32 m โ โ  โ 2 2 ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 2.40 71 For the acceleration period, the parameters for the car are: initial velocity = via = 0, acceleration = aa = a1, elapsed time = (ฮt)a = t1, and final velocity = vfa. For the braking period, the parameters are: initial velocity = vib = final velocity of acceleration period = vfa, acceleration = ab = a2, and elapsed time = (ฮt)b = t2. (a) To determine the velocity of the car just before the brakes are engaged, we apply vf = vi + a(ฮt) to the acceleration period and find vib = vfa = via + aa(ฮt)a = 0 + a1t1 or vib = a1t1 1 2 (b) We may use ฮx = vi (ฮt) + a(ฮt) to determine the distance traveled 2 during the acceleration period (i.e., before the driver begins to brake). This gives 1 1 (ฮx)a = via (ฮt)a + aa (ฮt)2a = 0 + a1t12 2 2 or (ฮx)a = 1 2 a1t1 2 (c) The displacement occurring during the braking period is 1 1 (ฮx)b = vib (ฮt)b + ab (ฮt)b2 = (a1t1 )t 2 + a2t 22 2 2 Thus, the total displacement of the car during the two intervals combined is ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 72 (ฮx)total = (ฮx)a + (ฮx)b = 2.41 1 2 1 a1t1 + a1t1t 2 + a2t 22 2 2 The time the Thunderbird spends slowing down is ฮt1 = ฮx1 2(ฮx1 ) 2(250 m) = = = 6.99 s v1 v + v0 0 + 71.5 m/s The time required to regain speed after the pit stop is ฮt 2 = ฮx2 2(ฮx2 ) 2(350 m) = = = 9.79 s. v2 v + v0 71.5 m/s + 0 Thus, the total elapsed time before the Thunderbird is back up to speed is ฮt = ฮt1 + 5.00 s + ฮt2 = 6.99 s + 5.00 s + 9.79 s = 2.18 s During this time, the Mercedes has traveled (at constant speed) a distance ฮxM = v0(ฮt) = (71.5 m/s)(21.8 s) = 1 559 m and the Thunderbird has fallen behind a distance d = ฮxM โ ฮx1 โ ฮx2 = 1 559 m โ 250 m โ 350 m = 959 m 2.42 The initial bank account balance is xi = \$1.0 ร 104 (to two significant figures) and the bank account is empty when xf = 0 with a change of ฮx = xf โ xi = \$(โ1.0 ร 104). Use ฮx = v0t + 12 at 2 ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 73 with v0 = 0 and a = โ2.5 ร 102 \$/month to find the time, t: ฮx = 12 at 2 โ t = 2ฮx a ( ) t= 2.43 2 \$(โ1.0 ร 10 4 ) ( โ2.5 ร 10 \$/month ) 2 2 = 8.9 months (a) Take t = 0 at the time when the player starts to chase his opponent. At this time, the opponent is distance d = (12 m/s)(30 s) = 36 m in front of the player. At time t > 0, the displacements of the players from their initial positions are 1 1 ฮxplayer = (v0 )player t + aplayer t 2 = 0 + (4.0 m/s 2 )t 2 2 2 1 ฮxopponent = (v0 )opponent t + aopponent t 2 = (12 m/s)t + 0 2 and When the players are side-by-side, ฮxplayer = ฮxopponent + 36 m [1] [2] [3] Substituting Equations [1] and [2] into Equation [3] gives 1 (4.0 m/s 2 )t 2 = (12 m/s)t + 36 m 2 or t2 + (โ6.0 s)t + (โ18 s2) = 0 Applying the quadratic formula to this result gives t= โ(โ6.0 s) ยฑ (โ6.0 s)2 โ 4(1)(โ18 s 2 ) 2(1) ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 74 which has solutions of t = โ2.2 s and t = +8.2 s. Since the time must be greater than zero, we must choose t = 8.2 s as the proper answer. 1 1 2 2 2 2 (b) ฮxplayer =(v0 )player t + aplayer t = 0 + (4.0 m/s )(8.2 s) = 1.3 ร 10 m 2 2 2.44 The initial velocity of the train is v0 = 82.4 and the final velocity is v = 16.4 km/h. The time required for the 400 m train to pass the crossing is found from ฮx = vt = [(v + v0 )/2]t as t= 2.45 โ 3600 s โ 2(ฮx) 2(0.400 km) = = (8.10 ร 10 โ3 h) โ = 29.1 s v + v0 (82.4 + 16.4) km/h โ 1 h โโ  (a) From v 2 = v02 + 2a(ฮy) with v = 0, we have v 2 โ v02 0 โ (25.0 m/s)2 (ฮy)max = = = 31.9 m 2a 2(โ9.80 m/s 2 ) (b) The time to reach the highest point is v 2 โ v02 0 โ 25.0 m/s t up = = = 2.55 s a โ9.80 m/s 2 (c) The time required for the ball to fall 31.9 m, starting from rest, is found from 1 ฮy = (0)t + at 2 as t = 2 2(ฮy) = a 2(โ31.9 m) = 2.55 s โ9.80 m/s 2 (d) The velocity of the ball when it returns to the original level (2.55 s ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 75 after it starts to fall from rest) is v = v0 + at = 0 + (โ9.80 m/s2)(2.55 s) = โ25.0 m/s 2.46 We take upward as the positive y-direction and y = 0 at the point where the ball is released. Then, v0y = โ8.00 m/s, ay = โg = โ9.80 m/s2, and ฮy = โ30.0 m when the ball reaches the ground. From v y = v0 y + 2ay (ฮy) , the 2 2 velocity of the ball just before it hits the ground is v y = v02 y + 2ay (ฮy) = โ (8.00 m/s)2 + 2(โ9.80 m/s 2 )(โ30.0 m) = โ25.5 m/s Then, vy = v0y + ayt gives the elapsed time as t= 2.47 v y โ v0 y โ25.5 m/s โ (โ8.00 m/s) = = 1.79 s ay โ9.80 m/s 2 (a) The velocity of the object when it was 30.0 m above the ground can be 1 2 determined by applying ฮy = v0t + at to the last 1.50 s of the fall. 2 This gives 1โ mโ โ30.0 m = v0 (1.50 s) + โ โ9.80 2 โ (1.50 s)2 2โ s โ  or v0 = โ12.7 m/s (b) The displacement the object must have undergone, starting from rest, to achieve this velocity at a point 30.0 m above the ground is given by v 2 = v02 + 2a(ฮy) as ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 76 (ฮy)1 = v 2 โ v02 (โ12.7 m/s)2 โ 0 = = โ8.23 m 2a 2(โ9.80 m/s 2 ) The total distance the object drops during the fall is then |(ฮy)total|=|(โ8.23 m) + (โ30.0 m)| = 38.2 m 2.48 (a) Consider the rockโs entire upward flight, for which v0 = +7.40 m/s, vf = 0, a = โg = โ9.80 m/s2, yi = 1.55 m, (taking y = 0 at ground level), and yf = hmax = maximum altitude reached. Then applying v 2f = vi2 + 2a(ฮy) to this upward flight gives 0 = (7.40 m/s)2 + 2(โ9.80 m/s2)(hmax โ 1.55 m) Solving for the maximum altitude of the rock gives hmax = 1.55 m + (7.40 m/s)2 = 4.34 m 2(9.80 m/s 2 ) Since hmax > 3.65 m (height of the wall), the rock does reach the top of the wall. (b) To find the velocity of the rock when it reaches the top of the wall, we use v f = vi + 2a(ฮy) and solve for vf when yf = 3.65 m (starting with vi 2 2 = +7.40 m/s at yi = 1.55 m). This yields v f = vi2 + 2a(y f โ yi ) = (7.40 m/s)2 + 2(โ9.80 m/s 2 )(3.65 m โ 1.55 m) = 3.69 m/s ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 77 (c) A rock thrown downward at a speed of 7.40 m/s (vi = โ7.40 m/s) from the top of the wall undergoes a displacement of (ฮy) = yf โ yi = 1.55 m โ 3.65 m = โ2.10 m before reaching the level of the attacker. Its velocity when it reaches the attacker is v f = โ vi2 + 2a(ฮy) = โ (โ7.40 m/s)2 + 2(โ9.80 m/s 2 )(โ2.10 m) = โ9.79 m/s so the change in speed of this rock as it goes between the 2 points located at the top of the wall and the attacker is given by ฮ(speed)down = ||vf| โ |vi|| = ||โ9.79 m/s| โ |โ7.40 m/s|| = 2.39 m/s. (d) Observe that the change in speed of the ball thrown upward as it went from the attacker to the top of the wall was ฮ(speed)up = ||vf| โ |vi||=|3.69 m/s โ 7.40 m/s| = 3.71 m/s The two rocks do not undergo the same magnitude speed change. The rocks have the same acceleration, but the rock thrown downward has a higher average speed between the two levels, and is accelerated over a smaller time interval. 2.49 The velocity of the childโs head just before impact (after falling a distance of 0.40 m, starting from rest) is given by v 2 = v02 + 2a(ฮy) as v I = v02 + 2a(ฮy) = โ 0 + 2(โ9.8 m/s 2 )(โ0.40 m) = โ2.8 m/s ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 78 If, upon impact, the childโs head undergoes an additional displacement ฮy = โh before coming to rest, the acceleration during the impact can be found from v 2 = v02 + 2a(ฮy) to be a = (0 โ v I2 )/2(โh) = v I2 /2h . The duration of the impact is found from v = v0 + at as t = ฮv/a = โv I /(v I2 /2h), or t = โ2h/v I . Applying these results to the two cases yields Hardwood Floor (h = 2.0 ร 10 โ3 m) : a = and t= vI2 (โ2.8 m/s)2 = = 2.0 ร 10 3 m/s 2 2h 2(2.0 ร 10 โ3 m) โ2h โ2(2.0 ร 10 โ3 m) = = 1.4 ร 10 โ3 s = 1.4 ms vI โ2.8 m/s Carpeted Floor (h = 1.0 ร 10 and 2.50 t= โ2 m): a = vI2 (โ2.8 m/s)2 = = 3.9 ร 10 2 m/s 2 โ2 2h 2(1.0 ร 10 m) โ2h โ2(1.0 ร 10 โ2 m) = = 7.1ร 10 โ3 s = 7.1 ms vI โ2.8 m/s (a) After 2.00 s, the velocity of the mailbag is vbag = v0 + at = โ1.50 m/s + (โ9.80 m/s2)(2.00 s) = โ21.1 m/s The negative sign tells us that the bag is moving downward and the magnitude of the velocity gives the speed as 21.1 m/s. (b) The displacement of the mailbag after 2.00 s is ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 79 โ v + v0 โ โก โ21.1 m/s + ( โ 1.50 m/s) โค (ฮy)bag = โ t=โข โ โฅโฆ (2.00 s) = โ 22.6 m โ 2 โ  2 โฃ During this time, the helicopter, moving downward with constant velocity, undergoes a displacement of 1 (ฮy)copter = v0t + at 2 = (โ1.5 m/s)(2.00 s) + 0 = โ3.00 m 2 The distance separating the package and the helicopter at this time is then d = |(ฮy)P โ (ฮy)h| = |โ22.6 m โ (โ3.00 m)| = |โ19.6 m| = 19.6 m (c) Here, (v0)bag = (v0)copter = +1.50 m/s and abag = โ9.80 m/s2 while acopter = 0. After 2.00 s, the velocity of the mailbag is vbag = 1.50 m โ mโ m m + โ โ9.80 2 โ (2.00 s) = โ18.1 and its speed is vbag = 18.1 s โ s โ  s s In this case, the displacement of the helicopter during the 2.00 s interval is ฮycopier = (+1.50 m/s)(2.00 s) + 0 = +3.00 m Meanwhile, the mailbag has a displacement of โ v + v0 โ โก โ18.1 m/s + 1.50 m/s โค (ฮy)bag = โ bag t=โข โ โฅโฆ (2.00 s) = โ16.6 m โ 2 โ  2 โฃ ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 80 The distance separating the package and the helicopter at this time is then d = |(ฮy)p โ (ฮy)h| = |โ16.6 m โ (+3.00 m)| = |โ19.6 m| = 19.6 m 2.51 (a) From the instant the ball leaves the playerโs hand until it is caught, the ball is a freely falling body with an acceleration of a = โg = โ9.80 m/s2 = 9.80 m/s2 = 9.80 m/s2 (downward) (b) At its maximum height, the ball comes to rest momentarily and then = 0 . begins to fall back downward. Thus, vmax height 1 2 (c) Consider the relation ฮy = v0t + at with a = โg. When the ball is at 2 the throwerโs hand, the displacement is ฮy = 0, giving 1 0 = v0t โ gt 2 2 This equation has two solutions, t = 0, which corresponds to when the ball was thrown, and t = 2v0/g corresponding to when the ball is caught. Therefore, if the ball is caught at t = 2.00 s, the initial velocity must have been v0 = gt (9.80 m/s 2 )(2.00 s) = = 9.80 m/s 2 2 ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 81 (d) From v 2 = v02 + 2a(ฮy) , with v = 0 at the maximum height, (ฮy)max = 2.52 v 2 โ v02 0 โ (9.80 m/s 2 ) = = 4.90 m 2a 2(โ9.80 m/s 2 ) (a) Let t = 0 be the instant the package leaves the helicopter, so the package and the helicopter have a common initial velocity of vi = โv0 (choosing upward as positive). At times t > 0, the velocity of the package (in free-fall with constant acceleration ap = โg) is given by v = vi + at as vp = โv0 โ gt = โ(v0 + gt) and speed = |vp| = v0 + gt. (b) After an elapsed time t, the downward displacement of the package from its point of release will be 1 1 1 โ โ (ฮy)P = vi t + aP t 2 = โv0t โ gt 2 = โ โ v0t + gt 2 โ โ 2 2 2 โ  and the downward displacement of the helicopter (moving with constant velocity, or acceleration ah = 0) from the release point at this time is 1 (ฮy)h = vi t + aht 2 = โv0t + 0 = โv0t 2 The distance separating the package and the helicopter at this time is then ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 82 1 1 โ โ d = (ฮy) p โ (ฮy)h = โ โ v0t + gt 2 โ โ (โv0t) = gt 2 โ โ  2 2 (c) If the helicopter and package are moving upward at the instant of release, then the common initial velocity is vi = +v0. The accelerations of the helicopter (moving with constant velocity) and the package (a freely falling object) remain unchanged from the previous case (ap = โg and ah = 0). In this case, the package speed at time t > 0 is |vP| = |vi + apt| = |v0 โ gt| . At this time, the displacements from the release point of the package and the helicopter are given by 1 1 (ฮy) p = vi t + a pt 2 = v0t โ gt 2 2 2 and 1 (ฮy)h = vi t + aht 2 = v0t + 0 = +v0t 2 The distance separating the package and helicopter at time t is now given by 1 1 d = (ฮy) p โ (ฮy)h = v0t โ gt 2 โ v0t = gt 2 2 2 2.53 (the same as earlier!) (a) After its engines stop, the rocket is a freely falling body. It continues ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 83 upward, slowing under the influence of gravity until it comes to rest momentarily at its maximum altitude. Then it falls back to Earth, gaining speed as it falls. (b) When it reaches a height of 150 m, the speed of the rocket is v = v02 + 2a(ฮy) = (50.0 m/s)2 + 2(2.00 m/s 2 )(150 m) = 55.7 m/s After the engines stop, the rocket continues moving upward with an initial velocity of v0 = 55.7 m/s and acceleration a = โg = โ9.80 m/s2. When the rocket reaches maximum height, v = 0. The displacement of the rocket above the point where the engines stopped (that is, above the 150 m level) is ฮy = v 2 โ v02 0 โ (55.7 m/s)2 = = 158 m 2a 2(โ9.80 m/s 2 ) The maximum height above ground that the rocket reaches is then given by hmax = 150 m + 158 m = 308 m (c) The total time of the upward motion of the rocket is the sum of two intervals. The first is the time for the rocket to go from v0 = 50.0 m/s at the ground to a velocity of v = 55.7 m/s at an altitude of 150 m. This time is given by ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 84 t1 = (ฮy)1 (ฮy)1 2(150 m) = = = 2.84 s v1 (v + v0 ) / 2 (55.7 + 50.0) m/s The second interval is the time to rise 158 m starting with v0 = 55.7 m/s and ending with v = 0. This time is t2 = (ฮy)2 (ฮy)2 2(158 m) = = = 5.67 s v2 (v + v0 ) / 2 0 + 55.7 m/s The total time of the upward flight is then tap = t1 + t2 = (2.84 + 5.67) s = 8.51 s (d) The time for the rocket to fall 308 m back to the ground, with v0 = 0 1 2 and acceleration a = โg = โ9.80 m/s2, is found from ฮy = v0t + at as 2 t down = 2(ฮy) = a 2(โ308 m) = 7.93 s โ9.80 m/s 2 so the total time of the flight is tflight = tup + tdown = (8.51 + 7.93) s = 16.4 s. 2.54 (a) For the upward flight of the ball, we have vi = v0, vf = 0, a = โg, and ฮt = 3.00 s. Thus, vf = vi + a(ฮt) gives the initial velocity as vi = vf โ a(ฮt) = vf + g(ฮt) or v0 = 0 + (9.80 m/s2)(3.00 s) = +29.4 m/s (b) The vertical displacement of the ball during this 3.00-s upward flight ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 85 is โ v + vf โ โ 29.4 m/s + 0 โ ฮymax = h = v(ฮt) = โ i (ฮt) = โ โโ  (3.00 s) = 44.1 m โ โ โ 2 โ  2 2.55 During the 0.600 s required for the rig to pass completely onto the bridge, the front bumper of the tractor moves a distance equal to the length of the rig at constant velocity of v = 100 km/h. Therefore the length of the rig is โก km โ 0.278 m/s โ โค Lrig = vt = โข100 โโ 1 km/h โโ  โฅ (0.600 s) = 16.7 m h โฃ โฆ While some part of the rig is on the bridge, the front bumper moves a distance ฮx = Lbridge + Lrig = 100 m + 16.7 m. With a constant velocity of v = 100 km/h, the time for this to occur is t= 2.56 Lbridge + Lrig 400 m + 16.7 m โ 1 km/h โ = โโ 0.278 m/s โโ  = 15.0 s v 100 km/h (a) The acceleration experienced as he came to rest is given by v = v0 + at as a= v โ v0 = t mi โ โ 0.447 m/s โ โ 0 โ โ 632 โ โ โ h โ  โ 1 mi/h โโ  1.40 s = โ202 m/s 2 (b) The distance traveled while stopping is found from ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 86 โก โ mi โ โ 0.447 m/s โ โค โข 0 + โโ 632 โโ  โ โฅ h โ 1 mi/h โโ  โฆ โ v + v0 โ โฃ ฮx = vt = โ t= (1.40 s) = 198 m โ 2 โโ  2 2.57 (a) The acceleration of the bullet is a= v 2 โ v02 (300 m/s)2 โ (400 m/s)2 = = โ3.50 ร 10 5 m/s 2 2(ฮx) 2(0.100 m) (b) The time of contact with the board is t= 2.58 v โ v0 (300 โ 400) m/s = = 2.86 ร 10 โ4 s 5 2 a โ3.50 ร 10 m/s 1 2 (a) From ฮx = v0t + at , we have 2 1 100 m = (30.0 m/s)t + (โ3.50 m/s 2 )t 2 2 This reduces to 3.50t2 + (โ60.0 s)t + (200 s2) = 0, and the quadratic formula gives โ(โ60.0 s) ยฑ (โ60.0 s)2 โ 4(3.50)(200 s 2 ) t= 2(3.50) The desired time is the smaller solution of t = 4.53 s. The larger solution of t = 12.6 s is the time when the boat would pass the buoy moving backwards, assuming it maintained a constant acceleration. (b) The velocity of the boat when it first reaches the buoy is ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 87 v = v0 + at = 30.0 m/s + (โ350 m/s2)(4.53 s) = 14.1 m/s. 2.59 (a) The keys have acceleration a = โg = โ9.80 m/s2 from the release point 1 2 until they are caught 1.50 s later. Thus, ฮy = v0t + at gives 2 ฮy โ at 2 /2 (+4.00 m) โ (โ9.80 m/s 2 )(1.50 s)2 /2 v0 = = = +10.0 m/s t 1.50 s or v0 = 10.0 m/s upward (b) The velocity of the keys just before the catch was v = v0 + at = 10.0 m/s + (โ9.80 m/s2)(1.50 s) = โ4.70 m/s or 2.60 v = 4.70 m/s downward (a) While in the air after launching itself from the water, the salmonโs vertical acceleration is ay = โg = โ9.80 m/s2. Assume it comes to rest at the top of its vertical leap, a distance ฮy = 3.60 m above the bottom of the waterfall. From the time-independent kinematic equation, with the final velocity v = 0, the initial speed v0 is v 2 = v02 โ 2g ( ฮy ) ( ) v0 = 2g ( ฮy ) = 2 9.80 m/s2 ( 3.6 m ) v0 = 8.4 m/s ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 2.61 88 (a) From v 2 = v02 + 2a(ฮy) , the insectโs velocity after straightening its legs is v = v02 + 2a(ฮy) = 0 + 2(4 000 m/s 2 )(2.0 ร 10 โ3 m) = 4.0 m/s (b) The time to reach this velocity is t= v โ v0 4.0 m/s โ 0 = = 1.0 ร 10 โ3 s = 1.0 ms a 4 000 m/s 2 (c) The upward displacement of the insect between when its feet leave the ground and it comes to rest momentarily at maximum altitude is ฮy = 2.62 v 2 โ v02 0 โ v02 โ(4.0 m/s)2 = = = 0.82 m 2a 2(โg) 2(โ9.8 m/s 2 ) (a) For constant speed: (b) When speeding up at a constant rate: ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 89 (c) 2.63 When slowing down at a constant rate: The falling ball moves a distance of (15 m โ h) before they meet, where h 1 2 is the height above the ground where they meet. Apply ฮy = v0t + at , 2 with a = โg, to obtain 1 โ(15 m โ h) = 0 โ gt 2 2 or 1 h =15 m โ gt 2 2 [1] 1 2 Applying ฮy = v0t + at to the rising ball gives 2 1 h = (25 m/s)t โ gt 2 2 [2] ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 90 Combining Equations [1] and [2] gives (25 m/s)t โ or 2.64 t= 1 2 1 gt = 15 m โ gt 2 2 2 15 m = 0.60 s 25 m/s (a) When the ball hits the ground, its change in height will be ฮy = โh. Solve for the final speed of each ball using the time-independent kinematic equation: v 2 = v02 โ 2g ( ฮy ) v= ( ยฑv ) โ 2g ( โh) = 2 0 v02 + 2gh (b) Weโre asked to find an expression for the time difference ฮt between the times of flight for the upward- and downward-thrown balls. For the upward-thrown ball, the path to the ground can be separated into two parts. In the first part the ball rises with initial velocity +v0 and falls back to its original height where its velocity is โv0. In the second part it moves from height h to the ground in exactly the same time it takes the downward-thrown ball to reach the ground. The difference between the two ballโs times of flight is therefore equal to ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 91 the time for the first part of the upward-thrown ballโs path. That time is found using the first kinematic equation with v0 = +v0 and v = โv0: v = v0 โ gฮt ฮt = 2.65 v โ v0 โv0 โ v0 2v0 = = โg โg g From the time-independent kinematic equation with v0 > 0, ฮy = 2.00 m, and v = ยฑ1.50 m/s: v 2 = v02 โ 2g ( ฮy ) v0 = v 2 + 2g ( ฮy ) = 2.66 ( ยฑ1.50 m/s) + 2g ( 2.00 m ) = 6.44 m/s 2 (a) To find the distance ฮx traveled by the blood during the acceleration, apply the time-independent kinematic equation with v0 = 0, v = 1.05 m/s, and a = 22.5 m/s2: v 2 = v02 + 2aฮx v 2 โ v02 (1.05 m/s) โ 0 ฮx = = = 2.45 ร 10โ2 m = 2.45 cm 2a 2 22.5 m/s2 2 ( ) (b) Solve for the time t required for the blood to reach its peak speed using the first kinematic equation: ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 92 v = v0 + at t= 2.67 v โ v0 (1.05 m/s) โ 0 = = 4.67 ร 10โ2 s a 22.5 m/s2 When released from rest (v0 = 0), the bill falls freely with a downward acceleration due to gravity (a = โg = โ9.80 m/s2). Thus, the magnitude of its downward displacement during Davidโs 0.2 s reaction time will be 1 1 ฮy = v0t + at 2 = 0 + (โ9.80 m/s 2 )(0.2 s)2 = 0.2 m = 20 cm 2 2 This is over twice the distance from the center of the bill to its top edge (โ8 cm), so David will be unsuccessful. 2.68 (a) The velocity with which the first stone hits the water is 2 mโ mโ m โ โ v1 = โ v + 2a(ฮy) = โ โ โ2.00 โ + 2 โ โ9.80 2 โ (โ5.00 m) = โ31.4 โ โ sโ  s โ  s 2 01 The time for this stone to hit the water is t1 = v1 โ v01 [โ31.4 m/s โ (โ2.00 m/s)] = = 3.00 s a โ9.80 m/s 2 (b) Since they hit simultaneously, the second stone, which is released 1.00 s later, will hit the water after an flight time of 2.00 s. Thus, v02 = ฮy โ at 22 /2 โ50.0 m โ (โ9.80 m/s 2 )(2.00 s)2 /2 = = โ15.2 m/s t2 2.00 s ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 93 (c) From part (a), the final velocity of the first stone is v1 = โ31.4 m/s. The final velocity of the second stone is v2 = v02 + at2 = โ15.2 m/s + (โ9.80 m/s2)(2.00 s) = โ34.8 m/s 2.69 When the hare wakes up, the tortoise is a distance L > 0 from the finish line whereas the hare is a distance L + d from the finish line. The hare, running with constant speed v1, reaches the finish line in a time given by thare = L+d v1 The tortoise, crawling with constant speed v2 < v1, reaches the finish line in a time given by ttortoise = L v2 The tortoise wins the race if ttortoise < thare, so it follows that L L+d < v2 v1 Rearrange this expression to find a condition on the length L: Lv1 < Lv2 + v2 d โ L < v2 d v1 โ v2 The tortoise wins the race if the length to the finish line, L, satisfies that inequality. ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 2.70 94 1 2 (a) From ฮy = v0t + at with v0 = 0, we have 2 t= 2(ฮy) = a 2(โ23 m) = 2.2 s โ9.80 m/s 2 (b) From the time-independent velocity equation, the final speed is: v 2 = v02 โ 2gฮy ( ) v = 2gฮy = 2 โ9.80 m/s2 ( โ23 m ) = 21 m/s Because the man is falling, his final velocity is v = โ21 m/s. (c) The time it takes for the sound of the impact to reach the spectator is tsound = ฮy 23 m = = 6.8 ร 10 โ2 s vsound 340 m/s so the total elapsed time is ttotal = 2.2 s + 6.8 ร 10โ2 s โ 2.3 s. 2.71 The time required for the stuntman to fall 3.00 m, starting from rest, is 1 2 found from ฮy = v0t + at as 2 1 โ3.00 m = 0 + (โ9.80 m/s 2 )t 2 2 so t= 2(3.00 m) = 0.782 s 9.80 m/s 2 (a) With the horse moving with constant velocity of 10.0 m/s, the horizontal distance is ฮx = vhorset = (10.0 m/s)(0.782 s) = 7.82 m ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Topic 2 95 (b) The required time is t = 0.782 s as calculated above. ยฉ 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

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### Solution Manual For College Physics, 11th Edition

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