# Solution Manual For An IBM SPSS Companion to Political Analysis, 6th Edition

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Instructorโs Solution Manual to Chapter Exercises in
An IBM SPSS Companion to Political Analysis, Sixth
Edition
By Philip H. Pollock II and Barry C. Edwards
Solutions to Exercises in
Getting Started (No exercises)
Chapter 1: Introduction to SPSS
Chapter 2: Descriptive Statistics
Chapter 3: Transforming Variables
Chapter 4: Making Comparisons
Chapter 5: Making Controlled Comparisons
Chapter 6: Making Inferences about Sample Means
Chapter 7: Chi-Square and Measures of Association
Chapter 8: Correlation and Linear Regression
Chapter 9: Dummy Variables and Interaction Effects
Chapter 10: Logistic Regression
Chapter 11: Doing Your Own Political Analysis
Version 1.3, Last Updated May 8, 2019
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Getting Started
There are no exercises at end of the Getting Starting section.
Chapter 1: Introduction to SPSS
1.
A.
26
$170,000 or over
B.
0
Never
2.
Display names
Alphabetical
3.
A.
General Happiness
B.
1
4.
A.
General Happiness
Valid
Missing
Total
Valid
Cumulative
percentage
percentage
Frequency
Percentage
VERY HAPPY
869
30.3
30.4
30.4
PRETTY HAPPY
1579
55.1
55.2
85.6
NOT TOO HAPPY
411
14.3
14.4
100.0
Total
2859
99.7
100.0
8
.3
2867
100.0
System
B. Word-formatted table looks something like this:
General Happiness
Very Happy
Pretty Happy
Not Too Happy
Total
Frequency
869
1579
411
2859
Percentage
30.4
55.2
14.4
100.0
Syntax for solution
* with GSS dataset
FREQUENCIES VARIABLES=happy
/ORDER=ANALYSIS.
5.
SPSS file type
File name extension
Dataset
.sav
Output
.spv
Syntax
.sps
6.
A.
hs_yrs_ss
B.
vep16_turnout
C.
attend_pct
D.
volunteer_percent
7.
NES variable โmaritalโ
Numeric code
Value label
Cumulative
30.4
85.6
100.0
1
Married, spouse present
2
Married, spouse absent (volunteered)
3
Widowed
4
Divorced
5
Separated
6
Never married
8.
Here are the variable descriptions in the Appendix. Students were asked to describe these
variables in โtheir own wordsโ so their wording should vary without changing the essential
meaning.
A. Total fertility rate: Number children born per woman (CIA)
B. Percentage of population aged 15โ49 with HIV. From World Economic Forum
C. Number infants dying before age one per 1,000 live births. From World Bankโs World
Development Indicators
D. Public expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP (UN)
E. Age-standardized death rates from non-communicable diseases per 100,000 people
(UN)
Chapter 2: Descriptive Statistics
1.
A.
science_quiz score
Frequency*
Percentage
Cumulative
percentage
0
2
.4
.4
1
9
2.0
2.4
2
13
2.9
5.3
3
38
8.2
13.4
4
54
11.6
25.1
5
66
14.2
39.2
6
80
17.1
56.3
7
78
16.8
73.1
8
60
12.9
86.0
9
45
9.6
95.6
10
21
4.4
100.0
Total
465
100.0
B. The science_quiz variable has a mean equal to 6.03, a median equal to 6, and a skewness
equal to โ0.23.
C.
D. Either answer is correct. The mean (6.03) and median (6) are almost the same so either
measure of central tendency will work.
E. The median is a good measure of central tendency in this case between the observations
are negatively skewed. The mean is attractive because the science quiz is an interval level
variable.
F. About 60% of people got passing grades on science_quiz.
About 15% got an A on the science quiz.
Syntax for solution
* with GSS dataset
FREQUENCIES VARIABLES=science_quiz
/STATISTICS=MEAN MEDIAN SKEWNESS SESKEW
/BARCHART FREQ
/ORDER=ANALYSIS.
2.
A.
Statistics for women13 variable
Mean
21.10
Median
20.8
Skewness
0.48
B. No. 17.8% women in the legislature is below average for a democracy. According to the
summary statistics, the world mean is 21.10% and world median is 20.8%.
C. To reach the top 10% of countries in the world, women would need to constitute about
40% of the US House of Representatives.
D.
E. The five countries with the lowest percentages of women legislators are
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Papua New Guinea
Comoros
Sri Lanka
Nigeria
Japan
The five countries with the highest percentages of women legislators are
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Sweden
Senegal
Finland
Nicaragua
Iceland
Syntax for solution
* with world dataset
FREQUENCIES VARIABLES=women13
/FORMAT=NOTABLE
/STATISTICS=MEAN MEDIAN SKEWNESS SESKEW
/HISTOGRAM
/ORDER=ANALYSIS.
SUMMARIZE
/TABLES=country BY women13
/FORMAT=VALIDLIST NOCASENUM TOTAL
/TITLE=’Case Summaries’
/MISSING=VARIABLE
/CELLS=COUNT.
3.
A.
If Pundit 1 is correct, femrole will have a negative skew.
If Pundit 2 is correct, femrole will have a positive skew.
If Pundit 1 is correct, femroleโs mean will be lower than its median.
If Pundit 2 is correct, femroleโs mean will be higher than its median.
B.
Statistics for femrole variable
Mean
5.87
Median
6
Mode
6
Skewness
C. The choice of bar color is arbitrary.
โ0.29
D. Pundit 1โs assessment is more accurate. The distribution of femrole values is negatively
skewed and the median is higher than the mean. The bar graph shows values tailing off on
the left side. (Wording may vary.)
Syntax for solution
* with GSS dataset
FREQUENCIES VARIABLES=femrole
/FORMAT=NOTABLE
/STATISTICS=MEAN MEDIAN SKEWNESS SESKEW
/BARCHART FREQ
/ORDER=ANALYSIS.
4.
A. Maximum dispersion when percentage of observations in each category the same. Figure
should something like this:
B. No dispersion when all observations in the same category. (It doesnโt matter which
category so long as observations all in the same one.)
C.
Attend value
Never
Frequency*
Percentage
Cumulative
percentage
711
25.0
25.0
Once/wk
204
7.2
100.0
Total
2849
100.00%
* Weighted frequencies
D.
E.
The mode of attend is Never.
The median of attend is Sev times/yr.
F. High dispersion. Although there are not the same number of respondents in each category,
there observations are spread out among the categories. (Instructions do not call for
explanation.)
Syntax for solution
* with GSS dataset
FREQUENCIES VARIABLES=attend
/FORMAT=NOTABLE
/STATISTICS=MEDIAN MODE
/BARCHART PERCENT
/ORDER=ANALYSIS.
5.
A.
Send back children brought to US illegally?
Percentage
1. Should send back โ favor a great deal
7.7%
2. Should send back โ favor a moderate amount
8.5%
3. Should send back โ favor a little
2.7%
4. Should allow to stay โ favor a little
9.9%
5. Should allow to stay โ favor a moderate amount
33.9%
6. Should allow to stay โ favor a great
37.3%
Total
100.0%
Should marijuana be legal?
Percentage
Favor
45.3%
Neither favor nor oppose
25.8%
Oppose
28.9%
Total
100.0%
Presidential approval scale
Percentage
Approve Strongly
36.0%
Approve
17.2%
Disapprove
9.7%
Disapprove Strongly
37.1%
Total
100.0%
B. Sending back children brought to US illegally. 71.2% of people moderately or strongly
favor letting children brought to US illegally stay in the country. (Wording may vary.)
C. Legalization of marijuana. Opinions are spread out among the values favor, neutral,
oppose with no response constituting a majority. (Wording may vary.)
D. Presidential approval. Most respondents either strongly approve the job the president is
doing or strongly disapprove the job he is doing. (Note: this NES wave was conducted in
2016 so this question is about Barack Obama, not Donald Trump.) (Wording may vary.)
E.
Syntax for solution
* with GSS dataset
FREQUENCIES VARIABLES=immig_chldrn grass pres_job
/ORDER=ANALYSIS.
GRAPH
/BAR(SIMPLE)=PCT BY pres_job.
6.
A.
U.S. Congress
My House incumbent
Approve Strongly
7.2%
25.4%
Approve
18.0%
44.9%
Disapprove
20.2%
18.4%
Disapprove Strongly
54.6%
11.3%
Total
100.0%
100.0%
B. Incorrect. The distribution of opinions about House incumbents is not similar to the
distribution of opinions about the whole Congress. The majority of people strongly
disapprove of Congress as a whole, but the majority either approve or strongly approve of
their House incumbent. (Wording may vary.)
Syntax for solution
* with NES dataset
FREQUENCIES VARIABLES=cong_approve cong_incumb_approve
/ORDER=ANALYSIS.
7.
A. If the conventional wisdom is correct, the distribution of defense-related expenditures will
have a positive skew. If the conventional wisdom is correct, the mean of defense-related
expenditures will be higher than its median.
B.
Statistics for defexpen variable
Mean
1093.74
Median
931.5
Skewness
2.29
C. The median is more representative of how much a typical state receives. Defense
expenditures per state are skewed because a few states receive a lot of expenditures.
D.
E. The conventional wisdom is accurate
F. The state with the lowest per capita defense spending is West Virginia, with $282 per
capita. The state with the highest per capita defense spending is Virginia, with $4,425 per
capita.
Syntax for solution
* with States dataset
FREQUENCIES VARIABLES=defexpen
/FORMAT=NOTABLE
/STATISTICS=MEAN MEDIAN SKEWNESS SESKEW
/HISTOGRAM
/ORDER=ANALYSIS.
SUMMARIZE
/TABLES=state BY defexpen
/FORMAT=VALIDLIST NOCASENUM TOTAL
/TITLE=’Case Summaries’
/MISSING=VARIABLE
/CELLS=COUNT.
8.
A.
blackpct_2016
hispanicpct_2016
Mean
10.52
11.54
Median
7.3
9.05
Skewness
1.16
1.86
B. Demographer 1. In this case, the typical stateโs percentage black and percentage Hispanic
are better described by the median values because the values have a positive skew. (Wording
may vary.)
C. Five states with the lowest percentages of Hispanics:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
West Virginia
Maine
Vermont
Mississippi
Kentucky
Five states with the highest percentages of Hispanics:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
New Mexico
Texas
California
Arizona
Nevada
Syntax for solution
* with States dataset
FREQUENCIES VARIABLES=blackpct_2016 hispanicpct_2016
/FORMAT=NOTABLE
/STATISTICS=MEAN MEDIAN SKEWNESS SESKEW
/ORDER=ANALYSIS.
SUMMARIZE
/TABLES=state BY hispanicpct_2016
/FORMAT=VALIDLIST NOCASENUM TOTAL
/TITLE=’Case Summaries’
/MISSING=VARIABLE
/CELLS=COUNT.

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