Preview Extract

Chapter 2
Applying Time Value Concepts
n Chapter Overview
Albert Einstein, the renowned physicist whose theories of relativity formed the theoretical base for
the utilization of atomic energy, called the time value of money principle one of the strongest forces
on earth. Chapter 2 discusses the importance of the time value of money. The concepts of simple
and compound
interest are introduced in the chapter. Simple interest refers to interest on a loan computed as a
percentage of the loan amount. Compound interest refers to the process of earning interest on
interest.
In addition, chapter 2 also discusses the time value of money as it is applied to two types of cash
flows: a single dollar amount (or lump sum) and an annuity. An annuity is a stream of equal
payments paid over
equal intervals of time. The use of present and future value tables and formulas to aid calculations
is
explained in the chapter. In addition, the chapter explains how to use a financial calculator to make
time value calculations. Example calculations show the inputs required using the TI BA II Plus
calculator.
In discussing the future and present value of an annuity, the chapter differentiates between an
ordinary annuity, for which payments occur at the end of the period, and an annuity due, for which
payments occur at the beginning of the period. Annuities are illustrated through the use of
timelines. As with the single dollar calculations, present and future value of an annuity tables are
provided within the chapter, as are instructions for using a financial calculator. Throughout the
chapter, practical uses for each type of calculation are described.
The chapter concludes with a discussion on how to convert a nominal interest rate to an effective
interest rate and vice versa. The nominal interest rate is the stated, or quoted, rate of interest. It is
the rate of interest that is used in time value of money calculations. The effective interest rate is the
actual rate of interest that you earn, or pay, over a period of time. Effective interest rates can be
compared with each other; whereas nominal interest rates cannot be directly compared in situations
where the compounding period between interest rates is different.
n Chapter Objectives
The objectives of this chapter are to:
1. Explain the difference between simple interest and compound interest,
2. Calculate the future value of a single dollar amount that you save today,
3. Calculate the present value of a single dollar amount that will be received in the future,
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4. Calculate the future value of an annuity,
5. Calculate the present value of an annuity,
6. Calculate the number of compounding periods and the nominal annual interest rate, and
7. Convert a nominal interest rate to an effective interest rate.
n Teaching Tips
1. The classic example of the power of compound interest is to ask students whether they
would rather have $500,000 right now or one cent that you would double each day for the
next thirty days. Many students will choose the $500,000 at first. However, the one cent
would grow to $10,737,417.65 at the end of thirty days. While this represents a 100% daily
interest rate which cannot be obtained, it is a powerful example. This chapter concerns the
โtimeโ value of money and it is a good idea to emphasize time over deposit amounts or rates
of return. Have the students calculate, either using the tables or with a financial calculator, a
single sum at a given interest rate, changing only the length of time of the investment. For
instance, a one-time $5,000 investment at 10% compounded annually would return $87,247
after 30 years, but only $54,174 after 25 years. Only 5 years difference in time amounts to a
difference of $33,073, or an average loss of $6,614 per year. After 20 years the investment
would return only $33, 637, and after 10 years it would return only $12,969. Emphasize that
all of this is based on the initial amount of $5,000 with no additional investment by the
investor.
2. It is sometimes said that those who understand compound interest collect it while those who
donโt understand it pay it. Discuss the fact that while compound interest works to our
advantage when we save and invest, it works to our detriment when we are in debt. Suppose
you bought a $2,000 home entertainment system on a credit card that charges19.99% annual
interest, compounded daily. Using minimum payments of 3% of the outstanding balance for
each month, it will take 15 years and 3 months to pay off the debt. You would have paid
$2,238.13 in interest, making the total payments $4,238.13, the true cost of the
entertainment system when purchased on credit. The moral of this example is to never pay
minimum payments on high interest credit cards. Paying $60 a month would pay off the
same debt in 4 years and 2 months, and reduce the interest paid to $942.82. Paying $100 a
month would pay the debt off in 2 years 1 month, and would cost only $452.92 in interest.
Make the calculations before making the purchase to ensure that you can make payments
that will minimize the amount of interest you will pay.
3. Demonstrate the difference between simple and compound interest. If you deposit $2,000
per year for 40 years and earn 10% compounded annually, but withdraw the interest and
spend it, the $2,000 deposit annually would be worth $80,000 in 40 years. By allowing the
interest to compound with the deposits, the investment would be worth $885,185.
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4. Class exercise: Have the class answer the following question:
You have two investment choices: Option 1:
Receive $500,000 cash today. Option 2:
Receive 1 penny today, 2 pennies tomorrow, 4 pennies the next day, 8 pennies the next
dayโฆdoubling every day for thirty days.
Which option do you choose?
As shown in the table below, option 2 is the better choice.
SUNDAY
1
MONDAY
2
TUESDAY
3
WEDNESDAY
4
THURSDAY
5
FRIDAY
6
SATURDAY
7
$0.02
$0.04
$0.08
$0.16
$0.32
$0.64
9
10
11
12
13
14
$2.56
$5.12
$10.24
$20.48
$40.96
$81.92
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
$163.84
$327.68
$655.36
$1,310.72
$2,621.44
$5,242.88
$10,485.76
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
$20,971.52
$41,943.04
$83,886.08
$167,772.16
$335,544.32
$671,088.64
$1,342,177.20
29
30
TOTAL
$2,684,354.40
$5,368,708.80
$10,737,417.65
$0.01
8
$1.32
5. Online/Team exerciseโreview of TVM problems. Generally, students will have a variety of
backgrounds on this topic. The use of a team exercise gives those with some expertise a chance to
help those with little or no background. It is a good review for those with the expertise and makes
the others more comfortable with peer help.
n Suggested Answers to Chapter Overview Questions
1.
$125 x 52 = $6,500.
2.
$6,500 x .25 = $$1,625. If Haroon invested this money at 7 percent compounded annually, he
would have $22,451.73 after 10 years, calculated as follows:
P/Y = 1, C/Y = 1, N = 10, I/Y = 7, PV = 0, PMT = 1625, FV = ?
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After 20 years, he would have $66,617.68, calculated as follows:
P/Y = 1, C/Y = 1, N = 20, I/Y = 7, PV = 0, PMT = 1625, FV = ?
3.
Haroon could adopt a cash budget wherein he only withdraws the amount that he has budgeted
for that week. For example, he could reduce his spending by 25 percent by giving himself a weekly
allowance of $93,75; which represents 75 percent of what he is currently spending. Haroon could also
spend less on each purchase or reduce the number of purchases he makes. For example, he could
purchase a less expensive brand or type of coffee and reduce the frequency with which he makes these
types of purchases. Finally, Haroon could make a commitment to himself to bring lunch from home
once per week, thereby reducing his purchases when he is at college.
n Answers to End-of-Chapter Review Questions
1.
The time value of money is a powerful principle that can be used to explain how money grows
over time. When you spend money, you incur an opportunity cost of what you could have done with
that money had you not spent it. For example, if you spent $2000 on a vacation rather than saving it,
you would have incurred an opportunity cost of the alternative ways that you could have used the
money. You can use the time value of money to compute the actual cost of the opportunity.
2.
Interest is the rent charged for the use of money. Depending on whether you have borrowed or
loaned money, you will either pay or receive interest, respectively. Simple interest is interest on a loan
computed as a percentage of the loan amount, or principal. The interest earned or paid is not
reinvested. Simple interest is measured by multiplying the principal, the interest rate applied to the
principal, and the loanโs time to maturity (in years). Compound interest refers to the process of earning
interest on interest.
3.
For simple problems a time value of money table may be used to calculate the future or present
value of a single dollar amount. Other methods that may be used to solve time value of money
problems include time value of money formulas and financial calculators.
4.
The time value of money is most commonly applied to two types of cash flows: a single dollar
amount (also referred to as a lump sum) and an annuity. An annuity refers to the payment of a series of
equal cash flow payments at equal intervals of time.
5.
The inputs required when calculating the future value, FV, of a single dollar amount using a
formula are the present future value of an investment (PV), the annual interest rate, i, (expressed as a
decimal), the number of compounding periods per year (n), and time, t, (in years).
6.
When interest is compounded annually, semi-annually, quarterly, monthly, weekly, or daily,
there are 1, 2, 4, 12, 52, or 365 compounding periods, respectively.
7.
The future value interest factor (FVIF), is a factor multiplied by todayโs savings to determine
how the savings will accumulate over time. The factor is determined based on an annual interest rate
where the number of compounding periods is one. The formula for determining the future value of a
single dollar amount when using the future value interest factor is:
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FV = PV ร FVIFi,n
In order to find the correct future value interest factor, you must know the interest rate and the
number of years the money is invested.
8.
Clear the existing TVM values in the calculatorโs TVM worksheet by entering 2ND CLR
TVM.
9.
A cash inflow (for example, income received from an investment) should be entered as a
positive number. A cash outflow (for example, an investment amount) should be entered as a negative
number. The +/- key on the TI BA II Plus is used to convert a positive number to a negative number,
and vice versa.
10.
In order to access the number of compounding periods per year function on your calculator,
press 2ND P/Y.
11.
Discounting is the process of obtaining present values.
12.
Suppose you need $20 000 to purchase a car in 3 years. You may want to determine how much
money you need to invest today to achieve the $20 000 in three years. Another instance where
determining the present value is useful would be if you want to pay off a loan today that will, for
example, be paid over 3 years. In this case, you want to know the present value of these future
payments.
13.
The formula for the present value of a single dollar amount is:
?? =
??
?
(1 + ?)+,
14.
The present value interest factor is a factor multiplied by the future value to determine the
present value of that amount. The formula for determining the present value of a single dollar amount
when using the present value interest factor is:
PV = FV ร PVIFi,n
15.
An annuity refers to the payment of a series of equal cash flow payments at equal intervals of
time. An ordinary annuity is a stream of equal payments that are received or paid at equal intervals in
time at the end of a period. An annuity due is a series of equal cash flow payments that occur at the
beginning of each period. Thus, an annuity due differs from an ordinary annuity in that the payments
occur at the beginning instead of the end of the period. The most important thing to note about an
annuity is that if the payment changes over time, the payment stream does not reflect an annuity.
16.
The formula used to determine the future value of an annuity is:
?? = ????[
(1 + ? )+ โ 1
]
?
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17.
The future value interest factor for an annuity, FVIFA, is a factor multiplied by the periodic
savings level (annuity) to determine how the savings will accumulate over time. The formula for the
future value interest factor for an annuity, when using a table, is:
FVA = PMT ร FVIFAi,n
18.
An annuity formula or table will provide the future value for an ordinary annuity. In order to
adjust your calculation for an annuity due, you would multiply the annuity payment generated by
multiplying the value from the table by (1 + i).
19.
The formula used to determine the present value of an annuity is:
?? = ????[
1
1 โ [(1 + ?)+ ]
?
20.
The present value interest factor for an annuity, PVIFA, is a factor multiplied by a periodic
savings level (annuity) to determine the present value of the annuity. The formula for the present value
interest factor for an annuity, when using a table, is:
PVA = PMT ร PVIFAi,n
21.
60. (5yrs x 12 mos./yr)
22.
The nominal interest rate is the stated, or quoted, rate of interest. It is also known as the annual
percentage rate (APR). The effective interest rate is the actual rate of interest that you earn, or pay,
over a period of time. It is also known as the effective yield (EY). When comparing two or more
interest rates, the nominal interest rate is not useful because it does not take into account the effect of
compounding. In order to make objective investment decisions regarding loan costs or investment
returns over different compounding frequencies, the effective interest rate has to be determined. The
effective interest rate allows for the comparison of two or more interest rates because it reflects the
effect of compound interest.
23.
The present value of a single sum
24.
The future value of an annuity
25.
The future value of a single sum
26.
The present value of an annuity
n Answers to Financial Planning Problems
1.
P/Y = 1, C/Y = 4, N = 3, I/Y = 9, PV = -3000, PMT = 0, FV = ?
Earl will have $3,918.15 to spend on his trip to Belize.
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2.
P/Y = 1, C/Y = 1, N = 5, I/Y = 3, PV = -1000, PMT = 0, FV = ?
Rodney will have $1,159.27 in five years to put down on his car.
3.
P/Y = 12, C/Y = 1, N = 60, I/Y = 3, PV = 0, PMT = -50, FV = ?
Michelleโs balance in five years will be $3,229.05.
4.
P/Y = 1, C/Y = 1, N = 15, I/Y = 6.6, PV = ?, PMT = 1550, FV = 0
The present value of the amount that Farah will receive is $14,480.97.
5.
P/Y = 1, C/Y = 12, N = 3, I/Y = 4, PV = ?, PMT = 0, FV = 2000
Cheryl must deposit $1,774.19 now in order to have the money she needs in three years.
6.
P/Y = 12, C/Y = 12, N = 60, I/Y = ?, PV = 20 000, PMT = -400, FV = 0
The annual interest rate on Shaniaโs loan is 7.42% compounded monthly.
7.
P/Y = 12, C/Y = 4, N = 60, I/Y = 4.5, PV = 0, PMT = ?, FV = 40 000
Shazaad needs to save $595.97 each month.
8.
P/Y = 12, C/Y = 2, N = 4, I/Y = 8, PV = 0, PMT = ?, FV = 7000
Amy and Vince must save $124.56 each month to have the money they need.
9.
P/Y = 12, C/Y = 4, N = 360, I/Y= ?, PV = 0, PMT = -300, FV = 1,000,000
Stacey will earn 11.90% rate of return on her investment.
10.
P/Y = 12, C/Y = 12, N = 216, I/Y = ?, PV = -1,000, PMT = -50, FV = 18,000
Juanโs required rate of return is 4.09%.
11.
P/Y = 1, C/Y = 1, N = ?, I/Y = 4, PV = -2500, PMT = 0, FV = 5000
It will take 17.67 years for Sandraโs savings account to increase to $5000.
12.
P/Y = 12, C/Y = 52, N = ?, I/Y = 5, PV = 0, PMT = -75, FV = 5000
It will take 58.9414 periods, or 4.91 years, for Jeron to accumulate $5000.
NOTE: Calculator must be set to BGN mode.
13.
P/Y = 12, C/Y = 1, N = 300, I/Y = 12, PV = 0, PMT = -400, FV = ?
Judithโs employer contributes $200 per month. She will have $674,482.60 in her retirement plan
at retirement.
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14.
Jessica: P/Y = 1, C/Y = 1, N = 10, I/Y = 10, PV = 0, PMT = -2000, FV = ?
Jessica will have $31,874.85 after 10 years. (assuming ordinary annuity)
Jessica: P/Y = 1, C/Y = 1, N = 30, I/Y = 10, PV = 31874.85, PMT = 0, FV = ?
Jessica will have $556,197.07 at retirement. She contributed $20,000 in total.
Joshua: P/Y = 1, C/Y = 1, N = 30, I/Y = 10, PV = 0, PMT = -2000, FV = ?
Joshua will have $328,988.05 at retirement. He contributed $60,000 in total.
15.
P/Y = 12, C/Y = 2, N = 480, I/Y = 9, PV = 0, PMT = -500, FV = ?
Penny Pincher will have $2,245,774.54 in her account after 40 years.
NOTE: Calculator must be set to BGN mode.
16.
Lump-sum payment: P/Y = 1, C/Y = 12, N = 20, I/Y = 8, PV = 312950, PMT = 0, FV = ?
The lump-sum payment will be worth $1,541,842.93 after 20 years.
Annual payment: P/Y = 1, C/Y = 1, N = 20, I/Y = 6, PV = 0, PMT = 50000, FV =?
The annual payment will be worth $1,839,279.56 after 20 years. Jesse should choose the annual
payment.
17.
P/Y = 1, C/Y = 4, N = 20, I/Y = 7, PV = ?, PMT = 0, FV = 6,000,000
The cash option payout would be $1,497,607.85.
P/Y = 52, C/Y = 12, N = 260, I/Y = 10, PV = 0, PMT = -10, FV = ?
She will have $3,366.34 in 5 years if she invests the amount she spends on lottery tickets.
18.
Invest It: P/Y = 1, C/Y = 4, N = 3, I/Y = 5, PV = -1000, PMT = 0, FV = ?
Investing the income tax refund will give him $1,160.75 at the end of three years.
Purchase Stereo: P/Y = 12, C/Y = 365, N = 36, I/Y = 4, PV = 0, PMT = -30, FV = ?
Purchasing the stereo and investing $30 per month will give him $1,145.45 at the end of three
years.
19.
2ND ICONV, NOM = 8.44, C/Y = 4
The equivalent effective interest rate is 8.71%.
20.
2ND ICONV, EFF = 35, C/Y = 365
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The equivalent nominal interest rate is 30.02%.
n Answers to Challenge Questions
1.
P/Y = 12, C/Y = 12, N = 144, I/Y = 5, PV = 0, PMT = 300, FV = ?
The future value of their education savings is $59,029.12.
P/Y = 12, C/Y = 12, N = 144, I/Y = 7, PV = 0, PMT = 300, FV = ?
If they could earn 7 percent a year instead of 5 percent, the future value of their education
savings would be $67,408.50. In other words, they would have an additional $8,379.38 in
education savings.
P/Y = 12, C/Y = 12, N = 144, I/Y = 5, PV = 0, PMT = 400, FV = ?
If they could save $400 per month at 5 percent, the future value of their education savings would
be $78,705.49.
P/Y = 12, C/Y = 12, N = 144, I/Y = 7, PV = 0, PMT = 400, FV = ?
If they could save $400 per month at 7 percent, the future value of their education savings would
be $89,877.99.
2.
Cash flow stream A:
P/Y = 1, C/Y = 4, N = 6, I/Y = 6.5, PV = ?, PMT = 1500, FV = 0
The present value of cash flow stream A is $7225.44
Cash flow stream B:
P/Y = 1, C/Y = 4, N = 4, I/Y = 6.5, PV = ?, PMT = 2500, FV = 0
At the end of year 2, the value of cash flow stream B is $8,533.44.
P/Y = 1, C/Y = 4, N =3, I/Y = 6.5, PV = ?, PMT = 0, FV = 6,601.74
The present value of cash flow stream B is $7032.59.
Cash flow stream is more attractive since it has a greater present value.
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n Suggested Answers to Ethical Dilemma Questions
a)
This question will hopefully spark a lively discussion between those students who believe that
a salespersonโs first obligation is to sell products or services and those students who believe that a
salespersonโs first obligation is to assist the customer.
b)
Two hundred dollars per month at 6 percent compounded annually will grow to $194,902.59 in
30 years. Two hundred and forty dollars per month at 6 percent compounded annually will grow to
$162,309.35 in 25 years. Therefore, Herb is incorrect in his calculation.
n Answers to Mini-Case Questions
MINI-CASE 1:
Employer Pension Plan Participation: Since her employer matches employee contributions by up to
6 percent of their salary, Jennyโs total contribution to her pension plan will increase by $2,400,
calculated as $40,000 x 6 percent. Assuming an interest rate of 6 percent, compounded annually, the
value of Jennyโs employer contributions may be calculated as follows assuming Jenny retires at age
60, her employer makes monthly contributions, and she receives no further increases in her annual
salary.
P/Y = 12, C/Y = 1, N = 384, I/Y = 6, PV = 0, PMT = 200, FV = ?
The future value of employer contributions at retirement would be $224,071.09.
Down Payment on a New Car: The amount that Jenny needs to save each year in order to make a
down payment of $8,000 towards the purchase of a new car is calculated as follows.
P/Y = 1, C/Y = 1, N = 2, I/Y = 6, PV = 0, PMT = ?, FV = 8,000
Jenny needs to save $3,883.50 each year for the down payment on a new car.
Future Value of Trust Fund: The future value of one half of Jennyโs trust fund at age 60 is calculated
as follows. Note: The calculation assumes that Jenny is able to maintain her investment tin bonds at a
rate of return of 7 percent, compounded quarterly.
P/Y = 1, C/Y = 4, N = 30, I/Y = 7, PV = 25 000, PMT = 0, FV = ?
The value of Jennyโs trust fund at age 60 will be $200,479.59.
Repay Student Loans: Paulโs annual payment on his student loan is calculated as follows.
P/Y = 1, C/Y = 1, N = 5, I/Y = 7.75, PV = 40 000, PMT = ?, FV = 0
In order to pay off his student loan within 5 years, Paul will need to make annual payments of
$9.886.59.
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MINI-CASE 2:
Will James be able to withdraw enough from his other investments?
Jamesโ remaining monthly expenses will be $2,000, calculated as $5800 – $3800. If James leaves his
retirement bonus in his bank account, he will have a total of $250 000 in his bank account. At an
interest rate of 2 percent per year, compounded annually, James will be able to generate a monthly
income of $921.79 (see TVM calculation below) during the next 30 years from his bank account.
P/Y = 12, C/Y = 1, N = 360, I/Y = 2, PV = 250 000, PMT = ?, FV = 0
In addition, at an interest rate of 5 percent per year, compounded annually, James will be able to
generate a monthly income of $795.08 (see TVM calculation below) during the next 30 years from his
retirement savings account.
P/Y = 12, C/Y = 1, N = 360, I/Y = 5, PV = 150 000, PMT = ?, FV = 0
As a result, James will have a monthly income shortfall of $283.13, calculated as $2,000- (921.79 +
795.08).
How long will James be able to withdraw income from his other investments?
If James withdraws the required income of $2,000 from the account that earns the lower interest rate,
i.e. his bank account, he will be able to cover his remaining expenses for approximately 140 months,
or 11 years and 8 months (see TVM calculation below).
P/Y = 12, C/Y = 1, N = ?, I/Y = 2, PV = (250 000), PMT = 2000, FV = 0
While he is using his bank account to fund his retirement, Jamesโ retirement savings account will
continue to grow at 5 percent per year, compounded annually. As a result, he will have $265,032.88
(see TVM calculation below) in his retirement savings account when he runs out of savings in his bank
account.
P/Y = 12, C/Y = 1, N =140, I/Y = 5, PV = 150 000, PMT = 0, FV = ?
James will be able to withdraw money from his retirement savings account to cover his remaining
expenses of $2,000 for approximately 190 months, or 15 years and 10 months (see TVM calculation
below).
P/Y = 12, C/Y = 1, N = ?, I/Y = 5, PV = (265 032.88), PMT = 2000, FV = 0
In total, James will be able to withdraw $2,000 of monthly income from his other investments for
approximately 27 years and 6 months.
What rate of return on his investments will allow James to cover his income shortfall during his
retirement years?
After James has withdrawn all of his savings from his bank account, he will still have 220 months, or
18 years and 4 months of retirement to cover. In order to cover this period of time, his retirement
savings account would need to generate a rate of return of 6.24 percent per year.
P/Y = 12, C/Y = 1, N = 220, I/Y = ?, PV = (265 032.88), PMT = 2000, FV = 0
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n Answers to Questions in The Sampson Family: A Continuing Case
1.
Savings Accumulated Over the Next 12 Years (Based on Plan to Save $300 per month)
Amount Saved Per Year
Interest Rate
Years
Future Value of Savings
$3,600
5%
12
$59,029
$3,600
7%
12
$67,408
P/Y = 12, C/Y = 12, N = 144, I/Y = 5, PV = 0, PMT = 300, FV = ?
P/Y = 12, C/Y = 12, N = 144, I/Y = 7, PV = 0, PMT = 300, FV = ?
Savings Accumulated Over the Next 12 Years (Based on Plan to Save $400 per month)
Amount Saved Per Year
Interest Rate
Years
Future Value of Savings
$4,800
5%
12
$78,705
$4,800
7%
12
$89,878
P/Y = 12, C/Y = 12, N = 144, I/Y = 5, PV = 0, PMT = 400, FV = ?
P/Y = 12, C/Y = 12, N = 144, I/Y = 7, PV = 0, PMT = 400, FV = ?
2.
If the Sampsons save $300 per month, the higher interest rate would result in an extra
accumulation in savings of more than $8,000. If they save $400 per month, the higher interest rate
would result in an extra accumulation in savings of more than $11,000 per year.
3.
Using a 5% interest rate, saving $400 per month instead of $300 would increase their total
savings by more than $19,000. Using a 7% interest rate, saving $400 per month instead of $300 would
increase their total savings by more than $22,000.
4.
To achieve a goal of $70,000 over 12 years, they would need to save an annual amount
(annuity) as determined below:
P/Y = 1, C/Y = 12, N = 12, I/Y = 5, PV = 0, PMT = ?, FV = 70000
Thus, they would have to invest $4,368 by the end of each year to accumulate $70,000 in twelve years.
Copyright ยฉ 2019 Pearson Canada Inc.
12
n Answers to Myth or Fact Margin Questions
Page
Myth or Fact
The interest rate that you are quoted on an investment or loan represents the
28
amount of interest that you will earn or pay.
Myth. The interest rate quoted, i.e. the nominal rate of interest, may not be the same as the
interest earned or paid, i.e. the effective or real rate of interest. It is important to know the
number of compounding periods associated with a loan or investment.
All financial calculators calculate the time value of money in the same manner.
36
Myth. Financial calculators produced by different manufacturers will involve different steps
when performing a time value of money calculation.
Future value interest factors (FVIF) and a financial calculator will generate different
41
answers to a question.
Fact. Due to rounding error, each method will provide a slightly different answer.
Copyright ยฉ 2019 Pearson Canada Inc.
13

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